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Table 4 Coefficient estimates from negative binomial regression model examining association between women’s empowerment and ideal number of children

From: Women’s empowerment and fertility preferences in high fertility countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

Variables Burkina Faso Mali Niger Chad
Model1 Model2 Model1 Model2 Model1 Model2 Model1 Model2
Women’s empowerment
 Empowerment index −0.02***(− 0.03--0.01)   − 0.07**(− 0.02—0.01)   − 0.02**(− 0.03—0.00)   −0.01**(− 0.01—0.004)  
  Economic Empowerment index   −0.01***(− 0.02—0.00)   − 0.02***(− 0.04—0.04)   −0.002(− 0.02–0.02)   0.04***(0.03–0.06)
 Socio-cultural empowerment index   0.00(−0.01–0.01)   −0.01*(− 0.02–0.00)   −0.03***(− 0.04—0.01)   − 0.01(− 0.02–0.004)
 Familial empowerment index   −0.03***(− 0.04—0.02)   −0.004(− 0.02–0.01)   0.00(− 0.01–0.01)   −0.02**(− 0.04--0.001)
Controls variables
Place of residence
 Rural 0.10(−0.01–0.04) 0.02(− 0.01–0.05) 0.04(− 0.01–0.10) 0.04(− 0.02–0.10) 0.14***(0.08–0.19) 0.15***(0.10–0.21) −0.31(− 0.38—0.24) −0.33(− 0.40—0.26)
Household wealth index
 Poor −0.08***(− 0.12—0.05) −0.08***(− 0.12—0.05) 0.25***(0.16–0.35) 0.25***(0.15–0.34) 0.14**(0.03–0.25) 0.15***(0.04–0.26) −0.10***(− 0.17–0.04) −0.09***(− 0.15—0.20)
 Middle − 0.10***(− 0.14—0.06) −0.10***(− 0.14—0.07) 0.001(− 0.12–0.12) 0.00(− 0.12–0.12) 0.01(−0.09–0.11) 0.01(− 0.08–0.11) −0.09***(− 0.16—0.03) −0.08**(− 0.14—0.01)
 Rich − 0.07***(− 0.11—0.04) −0.08***(− 0.11—0.04) 0.13***(0.05–0.22) 0.11***(0.03–0.20) 0.19***(0.09–0.28) 0.19***(0.09–0.29) −0.10***(− 0.16—0.03) −0.09***(− 0.16—0.03)
 Richest − 0.21***(− 0.26—0.17) −0.22***(− 0.26—0.17) 0.01(− 0.09–0.11) −0.01(− 0.11–0.09) 0.13**(0.03–0.23) 0.14***(0.04–0.24) −0.47***(− 0.56—0.38) −0.45***(− 0.54—0.36)
Husband education
 Primary −0.02*(− 0.05–0.00) −0.02(− 0.05–0.01) 0.03(− 0.05–0.10) 0.02(− 0.05–0.09) 0.06**(0.01–0.12) 0.07*(0.02–0.13) − 0.03(− 0.08–0.02) − 0.02(− 0.07–0.03)
 Secondary −0.19***(− 0.23—0.14) −0.21***(− 0.25—0.16) −0.08**(− 0.14—0.01) −0.07**(− 0.14—0.01) −0.24***(− 0.33—0.15) −0.23***(− 0.32—0.14) −0.14***(− 0.20—0.07) −0.12***(− 0.18—0.06)
 Tertiary (High school) − 0.16***(− 0.27—0.06) −0.20***(− 0.31—0.10) −0.15***(− 0.26—0.04) −0.13**(− 0.24—0.02) −0.50***(− 0.61—0.39) −0.44***(− 0.55—0.32) −0.12***(− 0.20—0.05) −0.11***(− 0.18—0.05)
Household size
 4–6 −0.09**(− 0.17—0.02) −0.10***(− 0.17—0.025) 0.22***(0.07–0.37) 0.25***(0.11–0.39) 0.22*(− 0.03–0.47) 0.21*(− 0.04–0.47) 0.09(−0.07–0.26) 0.14*(− 0.02–0.30)
 7–9 − 0.03(− 0.10–0.04) − 0.04(− 0.11–0.03) 0.30***(0.15–0.44) 0.34***(0.19–0.48) 0.29**(0.04–0.54) 0.28**(0.02–0.53) 0.25***(0.09–0.42) 0.31***(0.15–0.47)
 10 and more −0.01(− 0.08–0.06) −0.02(− 0.10–0.05) 0.31***(0.16–0.46) 0.34***(0.20–0.48) 0.28**(0.03–0.54) 0.28**(0.03–0.53) 0.28***(0.12–0.44) 0.33***(0.17–0.48)
Polygamous union
 Yes −0.002(− 0.03–0.02) 0.004(− 0.02–0.03) −0.16(− 0.23—0.09 −0.16(− 0.23—0.09) 0.002(− 0.05–0.05) −0.005(− 0.06–0.04) −0.001(− 0.07–0.06) 0.03(− 0.05–0.10)
Religion
 Muslim −0.31***(− 0.36—0.26) − 0.34***(− 0.39—0.28) −0.08(− 0.31–0.14) −0.07(− 0.28–0.14) −0.55(− 0.7—0.13) −0.09*(− 0.1–0.04) 0.56(0.18–0.95) 0.51(0.13–088)
 Christian −0.36***(− 0.41—0.31) −0.37***(− 0.42—0.32) 0.09(− 0.18–0.36) 0.09(− 0.16–0.35) −0.1(− 0.5–0.1) − 1.01***(− 1.2—0.8) 0.07(0.02–0.11) 0.06(0.01–0.10)
 Animist/traditional −0.31(− 0.37—0.25) −0.33***(− 0.39—0.27) −2.54***(− 2.1—2.4) −1.5***(− 2.9—2.2) −0.84(− 1.32—0.3) −0.72***(− 1.1—0.45) 0.60**(0.09–1.02) 0.11(− 0.02–0.18)
Number of women 4020 4020 1307 1307 1160 1160 837 837
  1. *** Significant at 1%; ** significant at 5%; significant at 10%
  2. (): confidence intervals
  3. Note: Model1: explanatory variables (empowerment and controls variables)
  4. Model2: explanatory variables (desegregated empowerment index and controls variables)