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Table 1 Psychological distress by pain severity in pregnant, breastfeeding and non-pregnant/non-breastfeeding women

From: Psychological distress and self-rated health status in reproductive aged women with pain: findings from a national, cross-sectional survey

  Pain Severity
Psychological distress level No recent pain Very Mild to Mild Moderate to Very Severe P value
Pregnant (n = 165, N = 191,856) (n = 52, N = 57,064) (n = 86, N = 100,943) (n = 27, N = 33,848)  
 Low 82.9 (69.1–96.7) 78.8 (68.0–89.7) 71.4 (48.9–93.8)
 Moderate 15.1 (2.1–28.1) 14.5 (5.9–23.1) 21.3 (3.9–38.7) 0.550a
 High to very high 2.0 (0.0–5.0) 6.7 (0.0–13.6) 7.3 (0.0–18.0)  
BF (n = 210, N = 234,601) (n = 72, N = 78,889) (n = 87, N = 95,019) (n = 51, N = 60,694)  
 Low 75.4 (61.8–89.0) 83.5 (74.6–92.4) 65.3 (48.3–82.4)
 Moderate 21.5 (8.8–34.1) 13.0 (5.7–20.3) 26.5 (9.5–43.6) 0.102a
 High to very high 3.1 (0.0–8.8) 3.4 (0.0–7.4) 8.1 (0.0–17.2)  
Non-pregnant/non-BF (n = 4005*, N = 4,607,140) (n = 1257, N = 1,481,078) (n = 1725, N = 2,013,751) (n = 1016, N = 1,100,795)  
 Low 77.3 (74.2–80.4) 63.4 (60.1–66.6) 46.9 (42.5–51.4)
 Moderate 16.5 (14.1–18.9) 23.8 (21.1–26.4) 26.7 (23.1–30.2) < 0.001b
 High to very high 6.3 (4.6–7.9) 12.8 (10.9–14.8) 26.4 (23.2–29.6)  
  1. Prevalence of psychological distress by gradation of pain severity. Prevalence as %, 95 confidence interval for estimate shown in parentheses. Psychological distress ranked by Kessler10 score (low: 10–15; moderate 16–21; high to very high: > 21). n: number of participants; N: inferred population estimate. *Seven women from the non-pregnant/non-BF group were categorised as not asked/not known and were not included. aFisher’s exact test bChi-square test. BF: Breastfeeding