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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and prevalence of clinically significant psychological distress (GHQ-28 ≥ 5)

From: Mental health among single mothers in Cyprus: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study

Demographic characteristics GHQ-28 (total score) ≥ 5
  % (n=) % x2 Df P value
Age
23–34 25,4 (80) 40.5 6.417 2 0.040
35–44 51,7 (163) 57.1   
45–59 22,9 (72) 46.5   
Educational level
Junior high school 7,9 (25) 60 10.290 3 0.016
High school 32,4 (102) 49.5   
Higher education 23.5 (74) 63.5   
University 36.2 (114) 40.7   
Single family status
Separated 9,5 (30) 53.3 1.768 3 0.622
Widow 9,2 (29) 60.7    
Divorced 73,1 (231) 49.6    
Unmarried 7,9 (25) 44    
How long as single mother
  < 2 years 20.5 (65) 62.5 5.613 2 0.060
2–4 years 33 (103) 43.7    
5 or more years 46.5 (147) 50.5    
Children age < 12 years old
Yes 64.9 (204) 49.5 0.302 1 0.583
No 35.1 (109) 52.8    
Employment status
Economically inactive 8.2 (26) 69.2 6.792 3 0.079
Unemployed 7.6 (24) 50    
Working part-time 10.4 (33) 62.5    
Working full-time 73.4 (232) 46.8    
Monthly family income
  > 1000 27.8 (88) 65.5 15.297 5 0.009
1000–1499 27.2 (86) 50    
1500–1999 18.0 (57) 42.9    
2000–2499 10.1 (32) 40.6    
2500–3499 12.0 (38) 47.4    
  ≥ 3500 4.4 (14) 21.4    
Member of SMA
No 56.8 (179) 46.4 2.598 1 0.107
Yes 43.2 (136) 55.6    
Single mothers’ allowance recipient
Yes 58.9 (186) 53.3 1.382 1 0.240
No 40.8 (129) 46.5    
Financial child support from the father
Yes 51.9 (163) 45.4 3.512 1 0.061
No 48.1 (152) 56    
Economic hardship during the last 12 months
Yes 79.7 (252) 57.2 23.235 1 < 0.001
No 20.3 (64) 23.4    
Limiting-long standing illness
Yes 49.4 (156) 65.2 26.976 1 < 0.001
No 50.6 (160) 35.8    
Physical activity
Yes 30.8 (97) 56.4 10.626 1 0.001
No 69.2 (218) 36.5    
Smoking habit
Yes 39.4 (124) 53.2 0.693 1 0.405
No 60.6 (191) 48.4    
Alcohol consumption
Yes 30.8 (97) 53.9 3.639 1 0.056
No 69.2 (218) 42.3