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Table 2 Means and standard deviations of physical performance indicators according to the categorical covariates and independent variables

From: Symptoms of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse and physical performance in middle-aged women from Northeast Brazil: a cross-sectional study

  Chair stand (s)a Gait speed (m/s)b Balancec
Leg standing with eyes open (s) Leg standing with eyes closed (s)
Variables Mean (SD)
Education
 Less than basic education 10.0 (1.8) 0.97 (0.19) 22.0 (8.6) 7.5 (6.5)
 Between basic and secondary 10.0 (2.0) 1.00 (0.16) 23.8 (7.9) 7.8 (5.7)
 Secondary or more 10.0 (2.5) 1.03 (0.17) 24.6 (7.3) 8.0 (5.9)
P value 0.97* 0.04* 0.05* 0.86*
Family income
  < 3 MW 10.0 (2.1) 0.99 (0.18) 23.0 (8.2) 7.5 (5.9)
  ≥ 3 MW 9,9 (1.9) 1.00 (0.16) 23.6 (8.0) 8.3 (6.5)
P value 0.58** 0,50** 0.57** 0.21**
BMI
 Normal 9.7 (1.8) 1.02 (0.16) 25.6 (6.2) 9.1 (6.8)
 Overweight 9.9 (1.9) 1.01 (0.20) 23.5 (8.1) 7.7 (6.3)
 Obese 10.2 (2.2) 0.96 (0.15) 21.6 (8.7) 7.0 (5.2)
P value 0.05* 0.001* 0.11* 0.01*
Parity
 0–2 children 9.9 (1.8) 1.01 (0.16) 23.9 (7.8) 8.6 (6.5)
  ≥ 3 children 10.1 (2.2) 0.98 (0.19) 22.5 (8.4) 6.9 (5.5)
P value 0.24** 0.11** 0.10** 0.009**
Age at first birth
 Before 18 years old 10.2 (2.2) 0.98 (0.19) 23.4 (7.9) 6.8 (6.1)
 After 18 years old 9.8 (2.0) 1.00 (0.17) 23.0 (8.2) 7.8 (6.0)
P value 0.34** 0.42** 0.72** 0.22**
Urinary incontinence in the last 12 months
 Frequent episodes 10.3 (2.3) 0.98 (0.16) 23.0 (8.2) 7.6 (6.6)
 Infrequent or none 9.9 (1.9) 1.00 (0.18) 23.3 (8.1) 7.8 (5.8)
P value 0.09** 0.41** 0.78** 0.83**
Pelvic Organ Prolapse
 Yes 9.9 (2.1) 0.98 (0.19) 21.2 (8.6) 6.6 (6.2)
 No 10.0 (2.0) 0.99 (0.17) 23.6 (8.0) 7.9 (6.0)
P value 0.61** 0.64** 0.03** 0.11**
  1. MW minimum wage, BMI body mass index
  2. aChair stands were evaluated by asking the participants to stand up and sit down as quickly as possible. Greater measures indicate longer times to complete the task (worse performance)
  3. bGait was measured with a four meter walk at the participants’ usual speed. Greater measures indicate faster gait speed (better performance)
  4. cBalance was measured by asking the participant to stand unaided on one leg, with eyes open and closed. High values indicate better ability to sustain a position (better performance)
  5. *p value for ANOVA
  6. **p value for T-test