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Table 3 Comparison of the frequency of breastfeeding problems on days 15, 2 and 4 months postpartum in two groups of intervention (counseling) and control group

From: The effect of prenatal counseling on breastfeeding self-efficacy and frequency of breastfeeding problems in mothers with previous unsuccessful breastfeeding: a randomized controlled clinical trial

VariableCounseling group
(n = 54)
n (%)
Control group
(n = 54)
n (%)
PCounseling
group (n = 54)
n (%)
Control
group
(n = 54)
n(%)
PCounseling
group (n = 54)
n (%)
Control
group
(n = 54)
n(%)
P
 15 days2 month4 month
Breastfeeding problems  0.008  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Impression of inadequate milk and crying of the infant due to hunger11 (20.4)15 (27.8) 7 (13.0)25 (46.3) 5 (9.3)20 (37.0) 
 Refusal to take breast2 (3.7)4 (7.4) 4 (7.4)7 (13.0) 2 (3.7)9 (16.7) 
 Flattened and inverted nipples3 (5.6)9 (16.7) 1 (1.9)1 (1.9)  
 Breast Congestion2 (3.7)7 (13.0) 1 (1.9)1 (1.9) 0 (0.0)1 (1.9) 
 Fissure and breast pain25 (46.3)16 (29.6) 1 (1.9)2 (3.7)  
 Mastitis 0 (0.0|)2 (3.7)  
 Fungal infection0 (0.0)1 (1.9) 6 (11.1)5 (9.3) 1 (1.9)2 (3.7) 
 No problem11 (20.4)2 (3.7) 34 (63.0)11 (20.4) 46 (85.2)20 (37.0) 
Breastfeeding performance problems  0.075  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Disrespect correct way of breastfeeding9 (16.7)5 (9.3) 1 (1.9)2 (3.7)  
 Infant sleeping and inadequate breastfeeding15 (27.8)12 (22.2) 10 (18.5)6 (11.1) 2 (3.7)2 (3.7) 
 Irregular and discontinuous breastfeeding (in terms of time)5 (9.3)7 (13.0) 3 (5.6)10 (18.5) 4 (7.4)11 (20.4) 
 discontinuous breastfeeding at night4 (7.4)7 (13.0) 1 (1.9)4 (7.4) 0 (0.0)3 (5.6) 
 discontinuous breastfeeding From both breasts (in terms of lactation turn)1 (1.9)10 (18.5) 1 (1.9)7 (13.0) 1 (1.9)4 (7.4) 
 Inadequate sucking due to infant’s low weight3 (5.6)2 (3.7) 0 (0.0)2 (3.7) 1 (1.9)4 (7.4) 
 Inadequate sucking due to vomiting after breastfeeding5 (9.3)6 (11.1) 1 (1.9)5 (9.3) 0 (0.0)7 (13.0) 
 Inadequate sucking due to other items6 (11.1)4 (7.4) 13 (24.0)14 (25.9)  
 No problem6 (11.1)1 (1.9) 24 (44.4)4 (7.4) 46 (85.2)18 (33.3) 
Milk adequacy  < 0.001*  < 0.001*  < 0.001*
 Adequate46 (85.2)21 (38.9) 50 (92.6)17 (31.5) 50 (92.6)24 (44.4) 
 Inadequate milk due to breastfeeding less than 8–123 (5.6)16 (29.6) 2 (3.7)12 (22.2) 3 (5.6)13 (24.1) 
 Inadequate milk due to inappropriate weight gain3 (5.6)10 (18.5) 1 (1.9)9 (16.7) 1 (1.9)7 (13.0) 
 Inadequate milk due to the frequency of urine less than 6 times1 (1.9)1 (1.9)   
 Inadequate milk due to the frequency of stool less than 2 times1 (1.9)6 (11.1) 1 (1.9)16 (29.6) 0 (0.0)10 (18.5) 
  1. *Chi-square /Fisher’s Exact test