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Table 2 Associations between individual and community factors with HPV Vaccination

From: Factors associated with HPV vaccination uptake in Uganda: a multi-level analysis

  Model 2 including individual level determinants Model 3 including individual and community level determinants
Fixed effect (OR, 95% CI)   
Individual-level determinants
Girl’s age
  10 (Ref)
  11 1.31 (1.06–1.61)* 1.30 (1.06–1.61)*
  12 1.15 (0.94–1.40) 1.14 (0.94–1.39)
  13 1.41 (1.15–1.71)** 1.40 (1.15–1.70)**
  14 1.42 (1.15–1.76)** 1.41 (1.14–1.75)**
School attendance status
  No (Ref)
  Yes 2.93 (2.16–4.0)*** 2.88 (2.12–3.92)***
Ethnicity
  Baganda (Ref)a
  Foreigners 3.31 (1.71–6.42)*** 3.33 (1.72–6.45)***
  Luo 1.15 (0.71–1.86) 1.18 (0.73–1.91)
  Lugbara 1.17 (0.65–2.11) 1.21 (0.67–2.18)
  Iteso 1.73 (1.13–2.64)* 1.79 (1.17–2.73)**
  Karamajong 3.66 (1.49–8.97)** 3.84 (1.57–9.43)**
  Banyoro 1.52 (1.05–2.21)* 1.54 (1.06–2.23)*
  Basoga 2.18 (1.43–3.32)*** 2.15 (1.41–3.28)***
  Other 1.48 (1.11–1.98)** 1.50 (1.12–2.01)**
Region
  Western (Ref)
  Central 0.97 (0.73–1.29) 1.00 (0.74–1.33)
  Eastern 0.81 (0.58–1.12) 0.82 (0.59–1.14)
  Karamoja 1.29 (0.56–2.95) 1.36 (0.59–3.14)
  Northern 1.24 (0.77–2.00) 1.31 (0.81–2.12)
Household characteristics
  Amount of media exposure
  0 (Ref)
  1 1.10 (0.90–1.35) 1.03 (0.83–1.28)
   ≥ 2 1.22 (1.00–1.50) 1.12 (0.87–1.41)
Sex of household head
  Female (Ref)
  Male 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 0.87 (0.75–1.01)
Number of members in the household
  1–8 (Ref)
   ≥ 9 0.81 (0.69–0.96)* 0.81 (0.69–0.95)**
Relationship to household head
  Daughter (Ref)
  Other relationship 0.94 (0.75–1.18) 0.94 (0.75–1.18)
Mother in the household
  No (Ref)
  Yes 1.16 (0.94–1.44) 1.17 (0.94–1.46)
Community level factors
Type of residence
  Rural (Ref)
  Urban   0.92 (0.72–1.17)
Wealth index
  Poorest (Ref)
  Poorer   1.11 (0.88–1.40)
  Middle   1.31 (1.01–1.69)*
  Rich   1.22 (0.93–1.59)
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Ref = Reference Category
  3. OR = Odds Ratios
  4. CI = Confidence Interval