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Table 4 Odds ratios from multilevel logistic regression analysis examining variations in current use of contraception among adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in Zambia, ZDHS 1996–2013/14

From: Patterns, trends, and factors associated with contraceptive use among adolescent girls in Zambia (1996 to 2014): a multilevel analysis

  1996
(n = 1181)
2001/2
(n = 1042)
2007
(n = 795)
2013/14
(n = 1879)
Current Contraceptive Use AOR p-values [95% CI] AOR p-values [95% CI] AOR p-values [95% CI] AOR p-values [95% CI]
Age
 15 1.000     1.000     1.000     1.000    
 16 2.252 0.171 (0.705 7.194) 0.494 0.139 (0.195 1.256) 1.063 0.885 (0.464 2.435) 1.049 0.889 (0.534 2.063)
 17 1.733 0.352 (0.544 5.521) 0.768 0.524 (0.342 1.728) 0.762 0.516 (0.335 1.732) 1.031 0.927 (0.539 1.970)
 18 2.872 0.062 (0.947 8.706) 1.058 0.884 (0.494 2.265) 1.425 0.372 (0.655 3.101) 2.717 0.001 (1.496 4.935)
 19 4.175 0.012 (1.377 12.656) 1.291 0.511 (0.603 2.764) 2.667 0.011 (1.255 5.668) 1.825 0.050 (1.001 3.328)
Province
 Central 1.000     1.000     1.000     1.000    
 Copperbelt 1.345 0.544 (0.516 3.504) 2.671 0.017 (1.193 5.978) 1.262 0.640 (0.477 3.341) 0.904 0.750 (0.484 1.687)
 Eastern 3.147 0.017 (1.230 8.052) 1.425 0.425 (0.596 3.406) 2.257 0.062 (0.959 5.311) 0.937 0.817 (0.542 1.620)
 Luapula 0.539 0.319 (0.159 1.819) 3.234 0.004 (1.445 7.238) 0.390 0.117 (0.120 1.265) 0.602 0.161 (0.296 1.224)
 Lusaka 1.705 0.273 (0.657 4.427) 3.731 0.001 (1.671 8.332) 1.280 0.591 (0.521 3.143) 1.302 0.354 (0.745 2.273)
 Muchinga              0.793 0.472 (0.421 1.493)
 Northern 2.871 0.030 (1.109 7.437) 1.559 0.257 (0.724 3.359) 0.976 0.961 (0.375 2.541) 0.703 0.253 (0.384 1.287)
 North western 6.043 0.000 (2.301 15.875) 2.274 0.039 (1.041 4.967) 2.408 0.050 (1.000 5.800) 1.033 0.908 (0.592 1.803)
 Southern 1.302 0.619 (0.460 3.688) 1.763 0.189 (0.756 4.110) 1.108 0.822 (0.453 2.713) 1.110 0.719 (0.630 1.954)
 Western 2.301 0.080 (0.905 5.853) 1.735 0.208 (0.736 4.093) 5.967 0.000 (2.598 13.706) 1.406 0.238 (0.799 2.475)
Residence
 Urban 1.000     1.000     1.000     1.000    
 Rural 0.556 0.040 (0.317 0.974) 0.827 0.422 (0.520 1.315) 0.658 0.051 (0.432 1.002) 0.654 0.002 (0.499 0.859)
Highest Level of Education
 No Education 1.000     1.000     1.000     1.000    
 Primary 2.057 0.061 (0.968 4.371) 1.195 0.562 (0.655 2.179) 3.525 0.008 (1.386 8.964) 2.928 0.032 (1.099 7.801)
 Secondary 3.080 0.009 (1.322 7.175) 2.330 0.015 (1.179 4.606) 3.389 0.015 (1.263 9.092) 3.584 0.011 (1.333 9.636)
Current Marital Status
 Never in union 1.000     1.000     1.000     1.000    
 Married/Living with Partner 1.934 0.003 (1.258 2.975) 2.867 0.000 (1.928 4.263) 2.408 0.000 (1.562 3.712) 4.131 0.000 (3.071 5.559)
 Widowed/Separated/Divorced 0.708 0.551 (0.227 2.207) 0.837 0.727 (0.309 2.271) 3.199 0.016 (1.247 8.208) 1.423 0.351 (0.678 2.984)
Currently Working
 No 1.000     1.000     1.000     1.000    
 Yes 1.614 0.023 (1.070 2.436) 1.276 0.243 (0.847 1.921) 1.392 0.127 (0.911 2.127) 1.345 0.037 (1.018 1.777)
 sigma_u 0.565   (0.261 1.223) 0.004   (0.000 120,604.000) 0.005   (3.04E-16 8.78E-10) 0.281   (0.051 1.538)
 rho 0.088   (0.020 0.313) 0.000   (0.000 1.000) 8.12E-06   (2.81E-32 1.000) 0.023   (0.001 0.418)
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