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Table 3 Association between non-user of contraceptives with demand- and supply-side factors

From: Demand- and supply-side factors associated with the use of contraceptive methods in Pakistan: a comparative study of demographic and health surveys, 1990–2018

  OR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
1990–1991 2006–2007 2012–2013 2017–2018 1990–1991 2006–2007 2012–2013 2017–2018
Demand-side factors
Media exposure 0.396 (0.353–0.442) 0.432 (0.391–0.477) 0.664 (0.562–0.784) 0.654 (0.483–0.885)
Desire for more children 5.594 (4.528–6.911) 2.414 (2.140–2.722) 1.939 (1.761–2.136) 3.434 (3.120–3.780) 4.835 (3.803–6.147) 4.817 (3.972–5.841) 0.838 (0.627–1.119) 0.860 (0.632–1.161)
Intimate partner violence 1.038 (0.866–1.243) 1.040 (0.860–1.258) 0.801 (0.625–1.026) 0.875 (0.658–1.164)
Decisional autonomy 0.471 (0.415–0.534) 0.781 (0.702–0.869) 0.928 (0.799–1.077) 0.853 (0.647–1.125)
Permission to go for medical or health facility 0.393 (0.348–0.444) 0.580 (0.520–0.647) 0.729 (0.606–0.870) 1.238 (0.888–1.727)
Getting medical help for self: Not wanting to go alone 0.473 (0.430–0.521) 0.597 (0.543–0.656) 0.901 (0.780–1.040) 1.119 (0.816–1.534)
Having sons         
 No 0.390 (0.164–0.925) 0.401 (0.202–0.797) 1.036 (0.531–2.022) 1.082 (0.439–2.668) 0.692 (0.262–1.830) 0.112 (0.022–0.583) 0.900 (0.413–1.961) 0.271 (0.150–0.490)
 1–3 0.709 (0.311–1.619) 0.824 (0.422–1.609) 1.829 (0.945–3.540 2.331 (0.951–5.711) 1.280 (0.534–3.073) 0.211 (0.041–1.076) 1.574 (0.743–3.338) 1.516 (0.846–2.716)
 4–6 0.890 (0.382–2.076) 1.006 (0.508–1.992) 1.954 (0.996–3.833) 2.481 (1.001–6.150) 0.923 (0.376–2.263) 0.323 (0.063–1.663) 1.795 (0.840–3.834) 1.779 (0.985–3.216)
Supply-side factors
Distance to health facility 0.436 (0.395–0.482) 0.552 (0.503–0.606) 0.775 (0.656–0.916) 0.773 (0.554–1.078)
Transport availability 2.474 (2.244–2.728) 0.654 (0.555–0.777)
Visited by family planning worker in past 12 months 0.583 (0.514–0.660) 1.428(1.271–1.603) 0.614 (0.560–0.674) 0.668 (0.558–0.800) 0.732 (0.651–0.823) 0.631 (0.480–0.828)
  1. Analysis is adjusted for age of mother, type of residence, region, mothers’ education, wealth, and occupation