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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies: all obtain biopsy for identification of CIN2+

From: Screening test accuracy of portable devices that can be used to perform colposcopy for detecting CIN2+ in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author /publication year Clinical setting Index test Procedure as described in manuscript Age mean (SD) Number of women receiving index test Number of women receiving biopsy (%) Number of women refusing biopsy Biopsy indication Person performing index test Prior tests Prevalence of CIN2+ n (%) Funding
First-line test
 Newman 2019 Boashan, China Gynocular™ Colposcopy traditional Use of green-filter not specified 44.3 **(6.7) 488 31 (6.3) NR Abnormal findings on colposcopy or abnormal cytology Gynaecologists (1 of 2) None 3/488* (0.6%) Two devices were donated to the study
Mixed use: first-line test and add-on test
 Nessa 2014 Doctors Dhaka, Bangladesh Gynocular™ Colposcopy IARC guidelines 35.1 (8.1) 932 228 (24.5) 28 Women who had a Swede score of greater than 4 Gynaecologists or Colposcopy trained Physicians (1 of 6) VIA (n = 528) OR no screening (n = 404) 39/932* (4.2%) Two investigators were funded by the device manufacturer
 Nessa 2014 Nurses Dhaka, Bangladesh Gynocular™ Colposcopy IARC guidelines 35.1 (8.1) 932 228 (24.5) 28 Women who had a Swede score of greater than 4 Colposcopy trained nurses (1 of 2) VIA (n = 528) OR no screening (n = 404) 39/932* (4.2%) Two investigators were funded by the device manufacturer
Add-on test only
 Banerjee 2018 West Bengal, India Gynocular™ Colposcopy IARC guidelines 39.2 **(7.4) 1021 1020 (99.9) 1 All women who had the index test Gynaecologist (uncertain how many gynaecologists were performing the index test) HPV AND /OR VIA (180 had VIA only) 36/1021 (3.5%) No funding
 Kallner 2015 Stockholm, Sweden Gynocular™ Colposcopy IARC guidelines 33.4 (9.9) 123 113 (92.0) NR Women who had a Swede score of greater than 0 Gynaecologist (1 of 6) PAP smear AND HPV 44/123* (35.7%) One investigator was funded by device manufacturer
 Mueller 2018 Lima, Peru Pocket Colposcopy Excluded green filter as not standard practice in Lima 37.1 *** (20–67) 129 81 (62.7) NR Abnormal findings on colposcopy Physicians (1 of 4) HPV OR PAP smear 22/129* (17.1%) Two National Institutes of Health grants
  1. CIN2+, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade two and above; Numbers in italics: calculated from data extracted; HPV, human papillomavirus; PAP smear, Papanicolaou smear test; VIA, visual inspection with acetic acid; IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer; NR, not reported; SD, standard deviation
  2. *Prevalence is based on assumption that all Women without biopsy were free from CIN2+
  3. **SD approximated, based on data from age categories
  4. ***Age range, as reported in the pape