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Table 1 Descriptive of individual- and community level characteristics of study sample

From: Multilevel analysis of the role of women’s empowerment on use of contraceptive methods among married Cambodian women: evidence from demographic health surveys between 2005 and 2014

Variables 2005
(n = 2211)
2010
(n = 10,505)
2014
(n = 10,849)
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
Educational level
 No formal education 498 (22.5) 1995 (19.0) 1662 (15.3)
 Primary 1323 (59.8) 5907 (56.2) 5886 (54.3)
 Secondary+ 390 (17.7) 2603 (24.8) 3301 (30.4)
Decision-making
 Low 92 (4.2) 400 (3.8) 382 (3.5)
 Middle 409 (18.5) 1056 (10.1) 1052 (9.7)
 High 1710 (77.3) 9049 (86.1) 9415 (86.8)
Workforce participation
 Low 890 (40.2) 4424 (42.1) 3393 (31.3)
 Medium 770 (34.8) 2972 (28.3) 3223 (29.7)
 High 551 (25.0) 3109 (29.6) 4233 (39.0)
Age (years)
 15–24 368 (16.6) 1615 (15.4) 1795 (16.5)
 25–34 732 (33.1) 3898 (37.1) 4426 (40.8)
 ≥ 35 1111 (50.2) 4992 (47.5) 4628 (42.7)
Religion
 Buddhist 2142 (96.9) 10,218 (97.3) 10,413 (96.0)
 Muslim 39 (1.8) 146 (1.4) 207 (1.9)
 Other 30 (1.3) 141 (1.3) 229 (2.1)
Residence
 Urban 353 (16.0) 1893 (18.0) 1627 (15.0)
 Rural 1858 (84.0) 8613 (82.0) 9222 (85.0)
Region
 Plains 898 (40.6) 4345 (41.4) 4093 (37.7)
 Tonle Sap 834 (37.7) 3695 (35.2) 4003 (36.9)
 Plateau / Mountain 268 (12.1) 1448 (13.8) 1788 (16.5)
 Phnom Penh 211 (9.6) 1017 (6.6) 965 (8.9)
Age at first marriage
 ≤ 16 423 (19.2) 1928 (18.3) 2022 (18.6)
 17–20 1078 (48.7) 5070 (48.3) 4956 (45.7)
 ≥ 21 710 (32.1) 3507 (33.4) 3871 (35.7)
Total children ever born
 0 82 (3.7) 444 (4.2) 600 (5.5)
 1–2 788 (35.6) 4450 (42.4) 5183 (47.8)
 ≥ 3 1341 (60.7) 5611 (53.4) 5066 (46.7)
Wealth
 Poor 886 (40.0) 4136 (39.4) 4293 (39.5)
 Middle 417 (18.9) 2059 (19.6) 2173 (20.1)
 Rich 908 (41.1) 4310 (41.0) 4383 (40.4)
Media exposure
 No 573 (25.9) 3715 (35.4) 3721 (34.3)
 Yes 1638 (74.1) 6790 (64.6) 7128 (65.7)
Perceived distance to HF
 Big problem 897 (40.6) 6842 (65.1) 3956 (36.5)
 No problem 1314 (59.4) 3663 (34.9) 6893 (63.5)
Health insurance
 No 9409 (89.6) 9172 (84.5)
 Yes 1096 (10.4) 1677 (15.5)
Partner education
 No formal education 294 (13.3) 1265 (12.0) 1072 (9.9)
 Primary 1186 (53.7) 4845 (46.1) 4995 (46.0)
 Secondary and higher 731 (33.0) 4395 (41.9) 4782 (44.1)
Contraceptive use
 No 1232 (55.7) 4716 (44.9) 4221 (38.9)
 Traditional 339 (15.4) 1790 (17.0) 2043 (18.8)
 Modern 640 (28.9) 3999 (38.1) 4585 (42.3)
Community-level factors    
Community wealth
 Low 658 (29.7) 3706 (35.3) 3778 (34.8)
 Middle 841 (38.1) 3999 (38.1) 4426 (40.8)
 High 712 (32.2) 2800 (26.6) 2645 (24.4)
Community education
 Low 675 (30.5) 2810 (26.8) 3481 (32.1)
 Middle 749 (33.9) 3668 (34.9) 3872 (35.7)
 High 787 (35.6) 4027 (38.3) 3496 (32.2)
Community decision-making
 Low 569 (25.7) 3643 (34.7) 3430 (31.6)
 Middle 723 (32.7) 3571 (34.0) 3576 (33.0)
 High 919 (41.6) 3291 (31.3) 3843 (35.4)
Community workforce participation
 Low 788 (35.6) 3388 (32.3) 3941 (36.3)
 Middle 751 (34.0) 3795 (36.1) 3897 (35.9)
 High 672 (30.4) 3322 (31.6) 3011 (27.8)
  1. HF Health facility