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Table 6 Factors associated with depression risk with EPDS score as continuous variable

From: Addressing the interaction between food insecurity, depression risk and informal work: findings of a cross-sectional survey among informal women workers with young children in South Africa

N = 265 Mean post-natal depression score Bivariable Multivariable
n Mean SD OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Mother's age
 < 30 years 138 5.34 4.94 Ref      
 30–47 126 5.73 4.86 1.07 (0.8–1.4) 0.58 na   na
Mother’s education
 < Grade 12 131 6.16 5.39 REF      
 ≥ Grade 12 134 4.88 4.28 0.79 (0.6–1.0) 0.07 0.85 (0.7–1.1) 0.18
Mother in a relationship with child’s father
 No 57 6.65 4.96 Ref      
 Yes 208 5.20 4.84 0.78 (0.6–1.1) 0.11 0.93 (0.7–1.3) 0.67
Father gives money to support the child
 No 84 7.30 5.09 Ref      
 Yes 181 4.69 4.58 0.64 (0.5–0.83)  < 0.001 0.73 (0.6–0.9) 0.03
Mother receives child support grant
 No 57 5.84 5.01 Ref      
 Yes 208 5.42 4.87 0.93 (0.7–1.30) 0.63 na   
Monthly earning
 < R1000 79 6.27 5.26 Ref      
 R2000–2999 149 5.34 4.75 0.85 (0.6–1.1) 0.26 0.90 (0.8–1.3) 0.93
 ≥ R3000 37 4.59 4.53 0.73 (0.5–1.1) 0.13 1.03 (0.7–1.5) 0.88
Salary
 Not fixed 164 5.52 5.03 Ref      
 Fixed 101 5.50 4.69 0.90 0.8–1.3) 0.98 na   
Working hours
 Irregular 64 6.39 5.41 Ref      
 Regular 201 5.23 4.70 0.82 (0.6–1.1) 0.17 0.75 (0.6–0.9) 0.03
Stable work
 < 4 years 207 5.57 4.72 Ref      
 ≥ 4 years 58 5.29 5.52 0.95 (0.7–1.3) 0.74 na   
Self-reported HIV positive
 Negative 117 4.91 4.59 Ref      
 Positive 131 6.19 5.19 1.26 (0.9–1.6) 0.08 0.97 (0.8–1.2) 0.80
 No answer/no test 17 4.41 3.99 na      
Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS)
 Secure/mild insecure 150 3.67 3.93 Ref      
 Moderate/severe insecure 115 7.91 5.00 2.15 (1.7–2.8) < 0.001 2.09 (1.6–2.6) < 0.001
  1. Significant findings in bold type. Only significant factors in bivariate analysis were included in the multivariate model