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Table 2 ORs of thyroid cancer associated with menstrual, reproductive and hormonal factors

From: Menstrual, reproductive and hormonal factors and thyroid cancer: a hospital-based case–control study in China

Factors Cases
(N = 2261)
Controls (N = 2261) Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Menstrual factors           
Age at menarche (years)           
 12 104 99 0.51 0.23–1.12 0.72 0.18–2.92 0.77 0.19–3.17 0.67 0.15–3.10
 13–14 974 995 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 15–16 857 859 0.90 0.69–1.18 0.73 0.46–1.17 0.72 0.45–1.16 0.79 0.48–1.30
  ≥ 17 304 290 0.85 0.61–1.19 0.54 0.29–0.99 0.52 0.28–0.97 0.59 0.31–1.12
 P for trend          0.650  
Had regular menstrual cycles           
 No 187 182 1.27 0.82–1.96 0.66 0.32–1.40 0.63 0.30–1.34 0.61 0.28–1.35
 Yes 2054 2067 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
Had dysmenorrhea           
 No 1757 1719 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes 495 535 0.92 0.70–1.21 0.82 0.51–1.32 0.81 0.50–1.31 0.70 0.42–1.18
Age at menopause (years)           
 44 68 64 0.97 0.60–1.58 1.08 0.49–2.39 1.03 0.46–2.30 0.98 0.42–2.29
 45–49 249 224 1.03 0.77–1.39 0.98 0.57–1.67 0.96 0.56–1.65 0.92 0.52–1.61
 50–51 307 315 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 ≥ 52 307 303 1.07 0.82–1.39 0.90 0.57–1.41 0.86 0.54–1.36 0.89 0.55–1.44
 P for trend          0.496  
Reproductive factors           
Number of pregnancy           
 1 613 631 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 2 771 796 0.96 0.77–1.18 0.63 0.36–1.12 0.62 0.35–1.11 0.67 0.37–1.23
  ≥ 3 774 728 1.04 0.81–1.34 0.64 0.34–1.20 0.62 0.33–1.18 0.66 0.34–1.28
 P for trend          0.222  
Age at first pregnancy (years)           
 20 336 325 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 20–25 1387 1354 0.99 0.78–1.25 1.03 0.63–1.69 1.03 0.63–1.70 0.96 0.57–1.61
 > 25 426 465 0.87 0.64–1.19 0.47 0.24–0.93 0.47 0.23–0.94 0.47 0.23–0.96
 P for trend          0.200  
Outcome of the first pregnancy           
 Live birth 1920 1946 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Miscarriage 81 80 1.13 0.78–1.64 0.93 0.37–2.33 0.94 0.37–2.35 0.85 0.33–2.20
 Abortion 125 95 1.39 0.99–1.96 0.81 0.31–2.07 0.78 0.30–2.03 0.80 0.30–2.09
 Stillbirth or ectopic 22 18 1.28 0.65–2.53 1.36 0.34–5.53 1.37 0.34–5.57 1.37 0.33–5.62
Age at last pregnancy (years)           
 25 806 777 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 25–30 883 924 0.97 0.81–1.17 1.17 0.76–1.81 1.17 0.75–1.81 1.21 0.77–1.90
 > 30 418 409 1.04 0.81–1.33 1.54 0.86–2.76 1.50 0.83–2.73 1.63 0.88–3.00
 P for trend          0.667  
Duration of breast feeding (months)           
 6 293 234 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 6–12 1040 1087 0.69 0.55–0.88 0.52 0.26–1.03 0.53 0.27–1.05 0.49 0.24–0.98
 > 12 674 685 0.68 0.52–0.90 0.67 0.31–1.44 0.68 0.31–1.46 0.60 0.27–1.31
 P for trend          0.090  
Hormonal factors           
Oral contraceptive use           
 No 1637 1667 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes 62 56 0.96 0.63–1.46 1.24 0.51–3.03 1.17 0.48–2.87 1.18 0.47–2.96
Hormone therapy use           
 No 2204 2233 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes 57 28 2.16 1.13–4.14 2.24 0.53–9.56 2.06 0.47–9.06 1.47 0.30–7.38
Hysterectomy and oophorectomy status           
 None 2107 2162 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Hysterectomy alone 119 74 1.71 1.19–2.46 1.36 0.74–2.52 1.37 0.74–2.54 1.45 0.77–2.73
 Oophorectomy alone 28 15 2.01 0.93–4.34 1.84 0.42–7.96 1.74 0.41–7.41 1.93 0.43–8.72
 Hysterectomy and oophorectomy 7 10 1.19 0.36–3.97 4.60 0.51–41.45 4.67 0.52–41.98 3.85 0.43–34.59
  1. Trend test was calculated using the linear-by-linear association chi square test
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref. reference
  3. Bold numbers represent significant results
  4. Model 1 only adjusted for age (continuous); Model 2 adjusted for model 1 plus socio-demographic characteristics including education level, average monthly household income, marriage status, and history of goiter and nodules; Model 3 adjusted for model 2 plus the health behavior of alcohol intake; Model 4 adjusted for model 3 plus body mass index