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Table 2 Clinical ocular surface characteristics across the menstrual cycle and the association with lifestyle factor scores

From: Associations between the menstrual cycle, lifestyle factors and clinical assessment of the ocular surface: a prospective observational study

Parameter Scores over menstrual cycle (mean ± SD) Correlations with lifestyle factors (Pearson’s r)
Follicular day 7 Ovulation day 14 Luteal day 21 General health score† Nutrition Caffeine intake Stress levels Exercise frequency Cosmetics use Environment exposure time
day 7 day 14 day 7 day 14 day 7 day 14 day 7 day 14 day 7 day 14 day 7 day 14 day 7 day 14
OSDI (0–100) 11 ± 10 11 ± 11 13 ± 11 −0.07 0.05 0.11 −0.12 −0.31 −0.17 0.39* 0.26 − 0.26 − 0.14 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.07 − 0.12
OOC (0–100) 21 ± 20** 26 ± 23 33 ± 23** 0.05 0.40* −0.05 − 0.25 −0.11 0.05 0.07 −0.10 0.32 −0.21 −0.27 − 0.23 −0.07 0.04
Bulbar Hyperaemia (0–4) 1.1 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.5 0.25 0.20 −0.03 − 0.03 0.34 0.27 0.07 −0.07 −0.07 − 0.15 0.27 0.30 −0.43* − 0.05
Limbal Hyperemia (0–4) 0.7 ± 0.5 0.7 ± 0.5 0.7 ± 0.4 0.15 0.10 −0.11 − 0.01 0.34 0.09 0.38 0.04 0.06 −0.26 0.06 0.30 −0.36 −0.23
Blepharitis (0–4) 0.2 ± 0.2** 0.2 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.3** 0.23 −0.21 − 0.02 −0.13 0.34 −0.04 0.22 −0.13 0.00 0.08 0.25 −0.04 −0.25 − 0.33
MGD (0–4) 0.5 ± 0.6 0.4 ± 0.4* 0.8 ± 0.5* 0.07 −0.19 − 0.00 −0.25 0.12 −0.24 0.24 0.01 0.00 0.11 0.22 0.25 −0.57* −0.04
Corneal Staining (0–4) 0.6 ± 0.6 0.6 ± 0.6 0.7 ± 0.6 −0.02 0.04 0.05 −0.22 −0.04 − 0.01 −0.09 − 0.12 −0.04 0.21 −0.03 0.34 −0.40* 0.05
Papillae (0–4) 1.1 ± 0.9 0.9 ± 0.7 1.0 ± 0.6 0.00 0.15 −0.14 − 0.19 −0.00 − 0.10 −0.24 0.19 0.07 0.17 −0.44* 0.21 −0.28 0.00
TBUT (s) 5.8 ± 2.9 5.4 ± 2.8 4.8 ± 2.3 −0.21 − 0.23 −0.34 − 0.02 0.11 0.45* −0.30 − 0.08 −0.10 − 0.20 −0.04 − 0.23 −0.18 − 0.08
PRT (mm/s) 18 ± 5 19 ± 5* 16 ± 7* −0.16 − 0.04 −0.44* − 0.05 0.32 0.48* 0.01 0.35 −0.15 −0.43* 0.20 −0.02 − 0.04 −0.18
  1. Results of the ocular surface assessment are expressed as mean ± SD. A two-tailed ⍺ = 0.05 level of significance was considered for all analyses. *Significant difference of day 14 vs 21; **day 7 vs 21. Lower values of lifestyle factor indicated healthier choices. Pearson correlation was used to determine the correlation between lifestyle factors and sign/symptoms of dry eye. Significant correlations are starred *p < 0.05.†general health scores were obtained only at baseline (day 14 represents the values of parameters taken at day 14)
  2. OSDI ocular surface disease index, OOC overall ocular comfort, TBUT tear break-up time, PRT phenol red thread, MGD meibomian gland dysfunction
  3. Significance changes and associations are shown in bold