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Table 3 Factors associated with the knowledge of obstetric danger signs among pregnant women attending antenatal care in the DRC, using weighted Zero inflated Poisson regression model

From: Awareness of obstetric danger signs among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evidence from a nationwide cross-sectional study

Factors Mean (± SD) Crude IRR (95% CI) p value Adjusted IRR (95% CI) p value
Location    0.85   
 Urban 1.50 ± 1.43 1.02 (0.80–1.31)    
 Rural 1.55 ± 1.31 1   1  
First ANC visit   0.09   0.03
 Yes 1.46 ± 1.35 1   1  
 No 1.61 ± 1.33 1.09 (0.99–1.21)   1.11 (1.01–1.21)  
Facility type    0.33   
 PHCs 1.54 ± 1.37 1    
 Hospital 1.51 ± 1.24 0.94 (0.83–1.06)    
Gestational age    0.11   0.24
 < 20 weeks 1.36 ± 1.29 1   1  
 ≥ 20 weeks 1.57 ± 1.35 1.14 (0.97–1.32)   0.92 (0.81–1.06)  
First pregnancy    0.004    < 0.001
 Yes 1.25 ± 1.32 1   1  
 No 1.63 ± 1.33 1.23 (1.07–1.42)   1.38 (1.23–1.55)  
Scholarship    0.58   
 Primary or less 1.50 ± 1.35 1    
 Secondary and above 1.58 ± 1.32 1.03 (0.93–1.14)    
Type of health providers   0.51   
 Midwife 1.54 ± 1.34 1    
 Physician 1.37 ± 1.34 0.93 (0.75–1.15)    
Clinic ownership    0.012   0.05
 Private 1.73 ± 1.40 1.24 (1.05–1.47)   1.15 (1.01–1.31)  
 Public 1.41 ± 1.28 1   1  
Mean number of ANC visits per day 1.53 ± 1.34 1.06(1.01–1.11) 0.02 1.04 (0.98–1.09) 0.20
Provider counseled on danger signs during ANC visit < 0.001   0.008
 No 1.32 ± 1.25 1   1  
 Yes 1.93 ± 1.41 1.38 (1.18–1.61)   1.19 (1.05–1.35)  
Women attended by a provider who received in-service training in ANC counseling within the previous 2 years 0.65   
 No 1.53 ± 1.38 1    
 Yes 1.54 ± 1.28 0.97 (0.84–1.11)    
Provinces of residence    0.00   < 0.001
 Middle 0.90 ± 1.08 1   1  
 Eastern 2.15 ± 1.30 2.09 (1.68–2.59)   2.04 (1.64–2.55)  
 Southern 1.40 ± 1.45 1.66 (1.29–2.13)   1.69 (1.32–2.17)  
 Western 1.13 ± 1.18 1.18 (0.93–1.49)   1.22 (0.97–1.53)  
 Northern 1.38 ± 1.22 1.42 (1.18–1.73)   1.49 (1.21–1.83)  
  1. IRR Incidence risk ratio, PHCs Primary Health Centres, ANC antenatal care
  2. *Whether ANC provider encouraged women to ask questions during the ANC visit