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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: Circulating inflammatory markers may mediate the relationship between low carbohydrate diet and circadian rhythm in overweight and obese women

Variable Mean ± SD Minimum Maximum
Age (years) 36.49 ± 8.35 18 56
Body weight (kg) 80.87 ± 12.44 59.5 136.6
Height (cm) 161.41 ± 5.92 142 179
BMI (kg/m2) 31.05 ± 4.33 24.2 49.6
LCD score 35.01 ± 10.22 6 58
MEQ status 50.5 ± 19.47 31 70
Sleep night 6.5 ± 1.59 1 12
Sleep day 3 ± 13.46 2 4
Stress status 7.98 ± 5.04 1 21
Physical activity (MET-minutes/week) 1202.05 ± 2085.34 40 19,194
Blood parameters
 Glucose (mmol/dl) 87.56 ± 9.6 67 137
 Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 185.10 ± 35.84 104 344
 TG (mg/dl) 121.81 ± 69.32 37 512
 HDL (mg/dl) 46.52 ± 10.88 18 87
 LDL (mg/dl) 95.06 ± 24.38 34 156
 TGF-β (mg/L) 78.67 ± 48.58 32.92 494.66
 IL-1β (mg/L) 2.71 ± 0.92 0.92 5.29
 Galectin-3 (ng/ml) 3.96 ± 7.07 0.15 32.29
Body composition
 BFM (kg) 34.04 ± 8.69 19.4 74.2
 BFP (%) 41.53 ± 5.48 15 54.3
 FFM (kg) 46.8 ± 5.64 35.3 65.7
 FFMI 17.93 ± 1.51 14.6 22.6
 FMI 13.15 ± 3.37 6.9 26.9
 WC (cm) 99.01 ± 10.05 80.1 136
 VFA (cm) 163.34 ± 38.45 75.3 284.1
 ODP (%) 144.09 ± 20.47 71 231
  1. SD, Standard deviation; BMI, Body mass index; LCD, Low carbohydrate diet; MEQ, Morning-evening questionnaire; TG, Triglyceride; HDL, High density lipoprotein; LDL, Low density lipoprotein; TGF-β, Transforming growth factor β; Il-1β, Interleukin-1β; BFM, Body fat mass; BFP, Body fat percentage; FFM, Fat free mass; FFMI, Fat free mass index; FMI, Fat mass index; WC, Waist circumference; VFA, Visceral fat area; ODP, Obesity degree percentage