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Table 2 Description of characteristics among types of circadian rhythm status

From: Circulating inflammatory markers may mediate the relationship between low carbohydrate diet and circadian rhythm in overweight and obese women

Variable Relative evening type
n = 57
11.7%
Intermediate
n = 159
58.7%
Relative morning type
n = 88
29.6%
P value* P-ANCOVA**
Age (years) 34.07 ± 9.121 35.87 ± 8.6 38.75 ± 7.93 0.02 0.17
Body weight (kg) 83.3 ± 15.88 80.38 ± 11.65 77.88 ± 10.61 0.11 0.04
Height (cm) 162.62 ± 6 16.85 ± 5.95 160.44 ± 5.77 0.26 0.83
BMI (kg/m2) 31.37 ± 4.89 31.12 ± 4.24 30.28 ± 3.79 0.33 0.05
Sleep night 8.22 ± 1.87 7.75 ± 1.62 7.54 ± 1.59 0.22 0.24
Sleep day 12.2 ± 26.72 0.69 ± 2.79 7.77 ± 19.06 0.11 0.29
Stress status 10.92 ± 5.01 7.8 ± 4.52 6.75 ± 5.34 0.001 0.002
Physical activity (MET-minutes/week) 936.06 ± 1161.94 1087.48 ± 1665.42 1080.05 ± 1183.76 0.9 0.77
Blood parameters      
 Glucose (mmol/dl) 87.47 ± 8.55 87.49 ± 10.21 86.79 ± 10.75 0.89 0.66
 Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 187.69 ± 47.79 177.8 ± 31.78 186.65 ± 32.61 0.16 0.16
 TG (mg/dl) 109.30 ± 49.41 122.2 ± 70.46 121.79 ± 54.23 0.64 0.73
 HDL (mg/dl) 45.52 ± 12.16 46.65 ± 8.72 48.15 ± 10.87 0.48 0.75
 LDL (mg/dl) 97.47 ± 28.28 95.42 ± 23 102.36 ± 21.3 0.18 0.26
 TGF-β (mg/L) 73.21 ± 26.51 81.81 ± 43.3 72.89 ± 31.98 0.43 0.62
 IL-1β (mg/L) 2.38 ± 0.88 2.72 ± 0.96 2.51 ± 0.95 0.59 0.41
 Galectin-3 (ng/ml) 7.63 ± 10.56 5.54 ± 9 2.82 ± 4.85 0.32 0.27
Body composition
 BFM (kg) 35.27 ± 11.12 34.1 ± 8.33 32.19 ± 7.56 0.18 0.03
 BFP (%) 41.51 ± 5.52 41.94 ± 5.37 40.87 ± 5.05 0.39 0.11
 FFM (kg) 48.08 ± 5.78 46.35 ± 5.52 45.91 ± 5.93 0.23 0.39
 FFMI 18.11 ± 1.41 17.9 ± 1.54 17.75 ± 1.29 0.54 0.3
 FMI 13.25 ± 3.77 13.28 ± 3.72 12.52 ± 3.02 0.29 0.05
 WC (cm) 100.67 ± 12.08 98.75 ± 9.72 96.62 ± 9.27 0.12 0.03
 VFA (cm) 166.64 ± 45.66 164.45 ± 37.36 153.88 ± 36 0.13 0.01
 ODP (%) 145.96 ± 22.77 144.88 ± 19.8 140.82 ± 17.66 0.31 0.05
  1. N: 304; 1: Mean ± SD; BMI, Body mass index; TG, Triglyceride; HDL, High density lipoprotein; LDL, Low density lipoprotein; TGF-β, Transforming growth factor β; Il-1β, Interleukin-1β; BFM, Body fat mass; BFP, Body fat percentage; FFM, Fat free mass; FFMI, Fat free mass index; FMI, Fat mass index; WC, Waist circumference; VFA, Visceral fat area; ODP, Obesity degree percentage
  2. *P-values are resulted from ANOVA test
  3. **P-value reported after adjusting total energy intake, physical activity and education with ANCOVA