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Table 1 Participants’ baseline characteristics by grip strength

From: Association of decreased grip strength with lower urinary tract symptoms in women: a cross‐sectional study from Korea

Grip strength Normal (N = 3645) Impaired (N = 580) p
Age, years 47.6 ± 10.5 54.7 ± 13.0 < 0.001
Height, cm 158.1 ± 5.4 154.7 ± 5.8 < 0.001
Weight, kg 59.1 ± 8.6 57.4 ± 8.0 < 0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.7 ± 3.3 24.0 ± 3.3 0.016
Waist circumference, cm 79.8 ± 8.5 81.3 ± 8.7 < 0.001
Body fat, % 33.0 ± 6.0 35.1 ± 6.2 < 0.001
Albumin, g/dL 4.2 ± 0.2 4.1 ± 0.2 0.005
Uric acid, mg/dL 4.6 ± 1.0 4.7 ± 1.0 0.002
HbA1C, % 5.5 ± 0.6 5.7 ± 0.7 < 0.001
HOMA-IR 1.6 ± 1.2 1.7 ± 1.8 0.037
TSH, µIU/mL 2.2 ± 1.7 2.1 ± 1.3 0.020
25-OH-vitamin D, ng/mL 19.9 ± 10.4 20.9 ± 10.8 0.054
Hypertension 339 (9.3) 92 (15.9) < 0.001
Diabetes 89 (2.4) 34 (5.9) < 0.001
Dyslipidemia 270 (7.4) 65 (11.2) 0.002
Current smoker 136 (3.7) 37 (6.4) 0.010
Alcohol consumption 481 (13.2) 59 (10.2) 0.050
Regular exercise 826 (22.7) 104 (17.9%) 0.012
Stressa    0.001
 Low 1897 (52.0) 287 (49.5)  
 Moderate 1457 (40.0) 220 (37.9)  
 High 291 (8.0) 73 (12.6)  
Daytime frequency 1106 (30.3) 194 (33.4) 0.145
Nocturia 1935 (53.1) 378 (65.2) < 0.001
Urgency 320 (8.8) 109 (18.8) < 0.001
Incontinence 329 (9.0) 93 (16.0) < 0.001
Overactive bladder    < 0.001
 None 3339 (91.6) 473 (81.6)  
 Mild 169 (4.6) 48 (8.3)  
 Moderate 131 (3.6) 54 (9.3)  
 Severe 6 (0.2) 5 (0.9)  
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%)
  2. Values were calculated using T-test and Chi square test
  3. aStress status was defined using the Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument-Korean version score