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Table 3 The association of uptake of postpartum family planning (PPFP) and healthcare experience variables among survey participants in Rwanda (Total n = 610)a, b

From: Predictors of postpartum family planning in Rwanda: the influence of male involvement and healthcare experience

  Yes (%) No (%) p value OR 95% CI Adj OR Adj 95% CI
Desire for pregnancy < 1 year
Yes (n = 28) 21 (75.0) 7 (25.0)  < .01* Ref Ref Ref Ref
No (n = 560) 412 (73.6) 148 (26.4)   0.92 0.35,2.12 0.92 0.35,2.10
Undecided (n = 19) 4 (21.1) 15 (78.9)   0.08 0.02,0.33 0.09 0.02,0.32
No response (n = 3) 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0)      
Health facility designation      0.53     
Government (n = 468) 341 (72.86) 127 (27.14)   Ref Ref Ref Ref
Faith-based (limited family planning services) (n = 142) 99 (69.72) 43 (30.28)   1.17 0.77,1.75 1.17 0.77,1.76
Respectful care      0.78     
Respectful care experienced by mother (n = 261)a 185 (70.88) 76 (29.11)   Ref Ref Ref Ref
Respectful care not experienced (n = 346) 253 (73.12) 93 (26.88)   1.12 0.78,1.60 1.12 0.77,1.59
No response2 (n = 3) 2 (66.67) 1 (33.33)      
ANC wait time       < 0.01*     
0–20 min (n = 113) 63 (55.75) 50 (44.25)   Ref Ref Ref Ref
21–40 min (n = 258) 191 (74.03) 67 (25.97)   2.26 1.42,3.60 2.35 1.46,3.79
41–60 min (n = 88) 58 (65.90) 30 (34.09)   1.53 0.87,2.74 1.50 0.84,2.69
61–450 min (n = 119) 104 (87.39) 15 (12.60)   5.50 2.91,10.91 5.42 2.86,10.75
No response (n = 32) 24 (75.00) 8 (25.00)      
Reported ANC attendance difficulty      0.29     
Yes (n = 143) 99 (69.23) 44 (30.77)   Ref Ref Ref Ref
No (n = 457) 335 (73.20) 122 (26.70)   1.22 0.80,1.83 1.23 0.81,1.86
Unsure and No response (n = 10) 4 (40.00) 6 (60.00)   0.30 0.04,1.85 0.31 0.04,1.91
Locus of control      0.15     
Internal locus of control (n = 573)c 416 (72.60) 157 (27.40)   Ref Ref Ref Ref
External locus of control (n = 28) 17 (60.71) 11 (39.29)   0.58 0.27,1.31 0.56 0.27,1.29
No response (n = 9) 7 (77.78) 2 (22.22)      
Makes healthcare decisions for mother and newborn      0.04*     
Mother (n = 124) 93 (75.00) 31 (25.00)   Ref Ref Ref Ref
Husband/partner (n = 1187) 119 (63.63) 68 (36.36)   0.58 0.35,0.95 0.59 0.35,0.97
Mother and partner jointly (n = 297) 226 (76.09) 71 (23.91)   1.06 0.64,1.71 1.06 0.66,1.72
No response (n = 1) 1 (100.00) 0 (0.00)      
Perceived stress scale      0.08     
Moderate or low perceived stress (n = 194) 150 (77.31) 44 (22.68)   Ref Ref Ref Ref
High perceived stress (n = 410) 279 (69.40) 131 (30.60)   0.67 0.44,0.98 0.67 0.45,0.99
No response (n = 15) 12 (80.00) 3 (20.00)      
Edinburgh postnatal depression scale      0.81     
“Normal” range of postpartum feelings (n = 28) 21 (75.00) 7 (25.00)   Ref Ref Ref Ref
Out of normal range, advised to seek services (n = 552) 374 (71.65) 148 (28.35)   0.84 0.44,1.52 0.84 0.44,1.53
No response (n = 60) 45 (75.00) 15 (25.00)      
  1. ANC = antenatal care; aQuestions posed to participants during ANC and/or within 12 weeks of birth; bOne or more values missing, subset of total sample; cParticipants’ responses showed cumulative score of positive internal locus of control; * indicates statistical significance < 0.05