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Table 4 Prevalence of workplace incivility, bullying and sexual harassment of women by demographic factors

From: Workplace gender-based violence and associated factors among university women in Enugu, South-East Nigeria: an institutional-based cross-sectional study

Variable Total sample
n
Workplace incivility Workplace bullying Sexual harassment
Mean (SD) Exp
n (%)
Never
n (%)
Mean (SD) Bullied
n (%)
Not bullied n (%) Mean (SD) Harassed n (%) Never harassed n (%)
Age (Years)           
18–34 years 84 23.9 (6.48) 60 (71.4) 24 (28.6) 32.4 (15.7) 39 (46.4) 45 (53.6) 11.1 (1.21) 27 (32.1) 57 (67.9)
35–49 years 112 24.6 (8.15) 67 (59.8) 45 (40.2) 39.5 (12.2) 74 (66.1) 38 (33.9) 10.1 (0.96) 56 (50.0) 56 (50.0)
 ≥ 50 years 105 23.9 (7.28) 65 (61.9) 40 (38.1) 35.6 (10.3) 48 (45.7) 57 (54.3) 11.9 (1.16) 39 (37.1) 66 (62.9)
t (df), χ2 (df), F (df)   F (2, 298) = 0.307 χ2 (2) = 0.218 F (2, 298) = 7.663 χ2 (2) = 11.362 F (2, 298) = 0.710 χ2 (2) = 7.118
P-value   0.736 0.218 0.001 0.003 0.492 0.028
η2   .002 .05 .004
Academic qualification           
SSCE 45 22.5 (6.89) 25 (55.6) 20 (44.4) 31.1 (10.5) 24 (53.3) 21 (46.7) 4.9 (8.64) 9 (20.0) 36 (80.0)
OND/NCE 50 27.3 (7.55) 39 (78.0) 11 (22.0) 33.8 (7.99) 26 (52.0) 24 (48.0) 5.1 (6.20) 14 (28.0) 36 (72.0)
B.Sc./B.Ed./B.A./equiv 89 24.3 (7.91) 53 (59.6) 36 (40.4) 37.2 (15.6) 44 (49.4) 45 (50.6) 9.1 (12.4) 35 (39.3) 54 (60.7)
M.Sc./M.Ed./M.A./equiv 68 21.1 (5.50) 34 (50.0) 34 (50.0) 38.3 (13.5) 36 (52.9) 32 (47.1) 9.5 (10.7) 36 (52.9) 32 (47.1)
Doctoral degree (PhD) 49 26.6 (7.18) 41 (83.7) 8 (16.3) 38.2 (11.9) 31 (63.3) 18 (36.7) 11.6 (13.1) 28 (57.1) 21 (42.9)
t (df), χ2 (df), F (df)   F (4, 296) = 7.593 χ2 (4) = 20.369 F (4, 296) = 3.160 χ2 (2) = 2.523 F (4, 296) = 3.781 χ2 (2) = 21.135
P-value    < 0.0001  < 0.0001 0.014 0.641 0.005  < 0.0001
η2   .10 .04 .05
Marital status           
Single 38 24.7 (8.18) 34 (70.8) 14 (29.2) 32.1 (8.66) 24 (50.0) 24 (50.0) 6.8 (7.64) 18 (37.5) 30 (62.5)
Married 217 24.1 (7.34) 136(62.7) 81 (37.3) 37.3 (13.4) 122(56.2) 95 (43.8) 8.5 (11.3) 89 (41.0) 128(59.0)
Separated/divorced 19 24.3 (7.58) 11 (57.9) 8 (42.1) 32.2 (15.6) 5 (26.3) 14 (73.7) 7.1 (13.3) 5 (26.3) 14 (73.7)
Widowed 17 23.6 (6.06) 11 (64.7) 6 (35.3) 37.1 (11.9) 10 (58.8) 7 (41.2) 10.9 (12.5) 10 (58.8) 7 (41.2)
t (df), χ2 (df), F (df)   F (3, 297) = 0.109 χ2 (3) = 1.440 F (3, 297) = 2.760 χ2 (3) = 6.720 F (3, 297) = 0.723 χ2 (3) = 4.157
P-value   0.955 0.696 0.042 0.081 0.539 0.245
η2   .001 .03 .003
Employment status           
Permanent appointment 269 23.8 (7.34) 166(61.7) 103(38.3) 35.8 (13.4) 138(51.3) 131(48.7) 7.8 (11.3) 96 (35.7) 173(64.3)
Temporal appointment 20 25.8 (4.88) 17 (85.0) 3 (15.0) 37.4 (8.92) 14 (70.0) 6 (30.0) 12.9 (5.91) 17 (85.0) 3 (15.0)
Casual/Contract 12 30.2 (9.60) 9 (75.0) 3 (25.0) 41.0 (7.27) 9 (75.0) 3 (25.0) 12.3 (7.43) 3 (25.0) 9 (75.0)
t (df), χ2 (df), F (df)   F (2, 298) = 4.880 χ2 (2) = 5.052 F (2, 298) = 1.005 χ2 (2) = 4.941 F (2, 298) = 2.883 χ2 (2) = 24.941
P-value   0.008 0.080 0.367 0.085 0.058  < 0.000
η2   .03 .006 .02   
Work experience           
 < 5 years 115 20.9 (6.11) 55 (47.8) 60 (52.2) 30.8 (9.73) 53 (46.1) 62 (53.9) 4.6 (6.78) 32 (27.8) 83 (72.2)
5–9 years 50 22.8 (6.56) 27 (54.0) 23 (46.0) 35.4 (8.64) 23 (46.0) 27 (54.0) 9.9 (8.82) 29 (58.0) 21 (42.0)
 ≥ 10 years 136 27.5 (7.32) 110(80.9) 26 (19.1) 40.9 (14.8) 85 (62.5) 51 (37.5) 10.9 (13.5) 61 (44.9) 75 (55.1)
t (df), χ2 (df), F (df)   F (2, 298) = 30.835 χ2 (2) = 31.963 F (2, 298) = 21.971 χ2 (2) = 8.099 F (2, 298) = 11.423 χ2 (2) = 15.086
P-value    < 0.000  < 0.000  < 0.000 0.017  < 0.000 0.001
η2   .17 .13 .07
  1. OND, Ordinary National Diploma; NCE, National Certificate of Examination; B.Sc., Bachelor of Science; B.Ed., Bachelor of Education; B.A., Bachelor of Arts; M.Sc., Master of Science; M.Ed., Master of Education; M.A., Master of Arts; equiv., Equivalent; CONTISS II, The Consolidated Tertiary Institutions Salary Structure II; CONUASS II, The Consolidated University Academic Staff Salary Structure II
  2. ***p < .0001; ** p < .001; * p < .05
  3. aCONTISS II, Annual gross salary from step 01–15
  4. bCONTISS II, Annual gross salary from step 01–11
  5. cCONTISS II, Annual gross salary from step 01–09
  6. dCONUASS II, Annual gross salary from step 01–09
  7. eCONUASS II, Annual gross salary from step 01–09; χ2 (df), Pearson’s chi-square and degree of freedom; F(df), F-ratio and degrees of freedom; t (df), independent-samples t-test and degree of freedom; η2, Partial Eta squared