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Table 5 Prevalence of workplace incivility, bullying and sexual harassment and female staff by demographic factors

From: Workplace gender-based violence and associated factors among university women in Enugu, South-East Nigeria: an institutional-based cross-sectional study

Variable Total sample
n
Workplace incivility Workplace bullying Sexual harassment
Mean (SD) Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
Mean (SD) Bullied
n (%)
Not bullied n (%) Mean (SD) Harassed n (%) Never harassed n (%)
Salary grade level           
aCONTISS II Grade 01–05 72 21.6 (7.24) 33 (45.8) 39 (54.2) 34.0 (12.4) 33 (45.8) 39 (54.2) 6.6(10.28) 22 (30.6) 50 (69.4)
bCONTISS II Grade 06–10 61 25.7 (6.44) 46 (75.4) 15 (24.6) 40.4 (13.6) 41 (67.2) 20 (32.8) 10.9(13.62) 29 (47.5) 32 (52.5)
cCONTISS II Grade 11–15 55 22.6 (7.08) 31 (56.4) 24 (43.6) 32.9 (14.1) 23 (41.8) 32 (58.2) 5.9 (9.58) 15 (27.3) 40 (72.7)
dCONUASSII Grade 01–04 65 26.6 (6.63) 53 (81.5) 12 (18.5) 36.1 (9.23) 38 (58.5) 27 (41.5) 10.3 (9.91) 38 (58.5) 27 (41.5)
eCONUASSII Grade 05–07 48 24.6 (8.69) 29 (60.4) 19 (39.6) 37.7 (14.9) 26 (54.2) 22 (45.8) 8.1(10.69) 18 (37.5) 30 (62.5)
t (df), χ2 (df), F (df)   F (4, 296) = 5.560 χ2 (4) = 24.030 F (4, 296) = 3.214 χ2 (4) = 9.981 F (4, 296) = 3.214 χ2 (4) = 17.080
P-value   0.000 0.000 0.013 0.041 0.031 0.002
η2   .07 .04 .04
Staff category           
Non-academic staff 188 23.2 (7.13) 110(58.5) 78 (41.5) 35.8 (13.6) 97 (51.6) 91 (48.4) 7.7 (11.45) 66 (35.1) 122(64.9)
Academic staff 113 25.7 (7.60) 82 (72.6) 31 (27.4) 36.8 (11.9) 64 (56.6) 49 (43.4) 9.4 (10.21) 56 (49.6) 57 (50.4)
t (df), χ2 (df), F (df)   t (299) = − 2.874 χ2 (1) = 6.036 t (299) = − 0.656 χ2 (1) = 0.721 t (299) = − 0.656 χ2 (1) = 6.115
P-value   0.004 0.014 0.512 0.396 0.201 0.013
η2   .03 .001 .001
Type of institution           
Private university 139 24.1 (7.42) 86 (61.9) 53 (38.1) 35.9 (13.7) 75 (54.0) 64 (46.0) 7.5 (10.57) 50 (36.0) 89 (64.0)
Public university 162 24.3 (7.40) 106(65.4) 56 (34.6) 36.3 (12.4) 86 (53.1) 76 (46.9) 8.9 (11.36) 72 (44.4) 90 (55.6)
t (df), χ2 (df), F (df)   t (299) = − 0.817 χ2 (1) = 0.411 t (299) = − 0.284 χ2 (1) = 0.023 t (299) = − 1.171 χ2 (1) = 2.228
P-value   0.851 0.522 0.777 0.880 0.243 0.135
η2   .002 .002 .001
  1. OND, Ordinary National Diploma; NCE, National Certificate of Examination; B.Sc., Bachelor of Science; B.Ed., Bachelor of Education; B.A., Bachelor of Arts; M.Sc., Master of Science; M.Ed., Master of Education; M.A., Master of Arts; equiv., Equivalent; CONTISS II, The Consolidated Tertiary Institutions Salary Structure II; CONUASS II, The Consolidated University Academic Staff Salary Structure II
  2. ***p < .0001; ** p < .001; * p < .05
  3. aCONTISS II, Annual gross salary from step 01–15
  4. bCONTISS II, Annual gross salary from step 01–11
  5. cCONTISS II, Annual gross salary from step 01–09
  6. dCONUASS II, Annual gross salary from step 01–09
  7. eCONUASS II, Annual gross salary from step 01–09; χ2 (df), Pearson’s chi-square and degree of freedom; F(df), F-ratio and degrees of freedom; t (df), independent-samples t-test and degree of freedom; η2, Partial Eta squared