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Table 2 Effect of BMI in subjects with, and without, PCOS: Clinical and ovarian variables

From: Effect of body mass index (BMI) on phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Singapore women: a prospective cross-sectional study

Variables Patient category BMI n (%) Model A Model B Model C
Fold change Adjusted Odds ratio (95% CI) Fold change Adjusted Odds ratio (95% CI) Fold change Adjusted Odds ratio (95% CI)
Average menstrual cycle length ≥ 35 days n (%) Healthy Normal 17 (11.2) 1.0 Ref     
High 12 (11.7) 1.04 0.85 (0.32, 2.26) 1.0 Ref   
PCOS Normal 44 (72.1) 6.44 24.07 (9.24, 62.69)*** 6.16 28.49 (8.86, 91.66)*** 1.0 Ref
High 51 (69.9) 6.24 21.25 (8.39, 53.86)*** 5.97 25.15 (8.44, 74.93)*** 0.97 0.88 (0.30, 2.61)
Variables Patient category BMI Mean ± SD Fold change Adjusted Difference (95% CI) Fold change Adjusted Difference (95% CI) Fold change Adjusted Difference (95% CI)
mFG score Healthy Normal 1.09 ± 0.21 1.0 Ref     
High 1.38 ± 0.25 1.27 0.06 (− 0.86, 0.98) 1.0 Ref   
PCOS Normal 1.75 ± 0.33 1.61 0.03 (− 1.06, 1.11) 1.27 − 0.04 (− 1.27, 1.20) 1.0 Ref
High 3.23 ± 0.30 2.96 1.85 (0.80, 2.90)*** 2.34 1.79 (0.64, 2.93)*** 1.85 1.82 (0.52, 3.12)**
Acne score Healthy Normal 1.92 ± 0.36 1.0 Ref     
High 1.78 ± 0.46 0.93 0.75 (− 0.63, 2.13) 1.0 Ref   
PCOS Normal 2.63 ± 0.58 1.37 0.13 (− 1.49, 1.74) 1.48 − 0.62 (− 2.47, 1.23) 1.0 Ref
High 2.60 ± 0.56 1.35 1.42 (− 0.14, 2.99) 1.46 0.68 (− 1.04, 2.39) 0.99 1.30 (− 0.64, 3.23)
Mean AFC Healthy Normal 13.64 ± 0.78 1.0 Ref     
High 12.65 ± 0.96 0.93 0.25 (− 2.84, 3.35) 1.0 Ref   
PCOS Normal 28.66 ± 1.26 2.10 12.11 (8.44, 15.78)*** 2.27 11.85 (7.65, 16.06)*** 1.0 Ref
High 30.24 ± 1.17 2.22 11.34 (7.74, 14.94)*** 2.39 11.08 (7.14, 15.02)*** 1.06 − 0.77 (− 5.25, 3.71)
Mean OV (ml) Healthy Normal 4.90 ± 0.19 1.0 Ref     
High 4.56 ± 0.23 0.93 − 0.19 (− 1.18, 0.80) 1.0 Ref   
PCOS Normal 8.16 ± 0.30 1.67 2.77 (1.60, 2.94)*** 1.79 2.96 (1.63, 4.29)*** 1.0 Ref
High 8.55 ± 0.28 1.74 3.69 (2.54, 4.83)*** 1.88 3.88 (2.53, 5.12)*** 1.05 0.91 (− 0.50, 2.32)
AMH (pmol/L) Healthy Normal 34.88 ± 2.24 1.0 Ref     
High 26.58 ± 2.77 0.76 − 3.04 (− 14.38, 8.30) 1.0 Ref   
PCOS Normal 87.97 ± 3.65 2.52 49.27 (35.67, 62.86)*** 3.31 62.30 (36.81, 67.80)*** 1.0 Ref
High 75.10 ± 3.37 2.15 38.59 (25.11, 52.06)*** 2.83 41.62 (26.95, 56.30)*** 0.85 − 10.68 (− 27.38, 6.01)
  1. Variables in each patient category compared against reference (Ref) denoted in each column. Model A Ref: Healthy-Normal BMI; Model B Ref: Healthy-High BMI; Model C Ref: PCOS-Normal BMI. Odds ratios and mean differences were adjusted for variables in Table 1 (except BMI).*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. mFG, modified Ferriman-Gallwey score; AFC, antral follicle count; OV, ovarian volume, AMH, anti-mullerian hormone