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Table 1 Prevalence and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) of any intimate partner violence by women educational attainment or rural–urban residence as well as the number of women interviewed for intimate partner violence and DHS survey

From: Effects  of rural–urban residence and education on intimate partner violence among women in Sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of health survey data

Country and year None to primary education Secondary or higher education Urban residence Rural residence National IPV sample DHS sample (15–49 years)
IPV 95% CI IPV 95% CI IPV 95% CI IPV 95% CI IPV 95% CI
Angola 2015 40.0 38.2–41.7 40.5 38.1–43.0 42.1 40.2–43.9 37.6 35.2–40.0 40.1 38.6–41.6 7669 14,379
Burkina Faso 2010 15.5 14.6–16.4 18.6 15.9–21.7 18.2 16.6–19.9 14.8 13.7–15.9 15.7 14.8–16.6 10,001 17,087
Burundi 2016 52.5 51.0–54.0 31.1 28.1–34.3 40.7 37.7–43.6 51.8 50.2–53.4 50.0 48.6–51.3 7366 17,269
Cameroon 2004 48.8 44.5–53.1 55.5 51.3–59.7 52.2 48.5–55.9 50.0 44.1–55.9 51.0 47.1–54.8 2572 10,656
Cameroon 2011 55.3 53.1–57.5 61.1 58.4–63.7 57.5 55.1–59.9 57.3 54.9–59.8 57.4 55.7–59.1 4001 15,426
Chad 2014 29.5 27.7–31.3 33.9 29.2–39.0 31.4 27.7–35.3 29.4 27.5–31.4 29.9 28.2–31.6 3807 17,719
Comoros 2012 11.6 9.9–13.5 9.3 7.6–11.3 12.2 10.0–14.7 9.8 8.1–11.8 10.8 9.4–12.3 2527 5329
Congo D R 2007 67.1 64.6–69.6 68.2 65.0–71.2 69.2 66.4–71.8 66.4 63.5–69.2 67.5 65.4–69.5 2850 9995
Congo D R 2013 56.7 54.5–58.9 55.5 52.9–58.1 58.6 55.7–61.4 55.4 53.1–57.7 56.3 54.5–58.1 5684 18,827
Cote dvoire 2011 31.2 29.7–32.8 30.5 26.7–34.6 32.9 30.7–35.2 30.1 28.3–32.1 31.2 29.7–32.7 5006 10,060
Ethiopia 2016 30.9 29.1–32.7 25.7 22.4–29.4 27.7 24.9–30.6 31.0 29.1–33.0 30.1 28.6–31.8 4720 15,683
Gabon 2012 57.3 54.9–59.7 55.7 53.3–58.0 54.6 52.2–57.0 59.4 56.8–62.0 56.4 54.6–58.2 4130 8422
Gambia 2013 29.4 27.3–31.5 28.0 24.9–31.4 28.1 25.5–30.9 29.7 27.3–32.3 29.1 27.3–30.9 3535 10,233
Ghana 2008 39.0 36.0–42.2 38.6 35.2–42.1 41.2 37.5–45.0 37.3 34.4–40.3 38.8 36.5–41.2 1831 4916
Kenya 2003 47.4 45.2–49.5 41.8 38.7–44.9 41.8 38.7–45.0 47.7 45.4–49.9 45.9 44.1–47.8 4310 8195
Kenya 2008 48.4 46.3–50.6 34.3 31.5–37.1 37.9 34.9–41.0 47.3 45.0–49.6 44.6 42.8–46.5 4902 8444
Kenya 2014 46.9 45.1–48.6 39.6 36.9–42.4 42.7 40.2–45.2 46.0 44.2–47.9 44.8 43.3–46.3 4512 31,079
Liberia 2007 48.7 46.1–51.2 50.8 45.9–55.6 53.9 50.0–57.7 46.4 43.4–49.5 49.1 46.7–51.5 3909 7092
Malawi 2004 30.6 29.3–31.9 27.0 24.1–30.2 29.3 26.2–32.5 30.4 29.1–31.8 30.3 29.1–31.5 8291 11,698
Malawi 2010 38.2 36.6–39.8 36.3 32.9–39.7 39.5 35.4–43.8 37.7 36.1–39.3 37.9 36.4–39.4 5369 23,020
Malawi 2015 43.4 41.7–45.1 34.5 31.9–37.3 40.8 37.6–44.1 41.6 39.9–43.3 41.5 40.0–42.9 5406 24,562
Mali 2012 45.1 42.6–47.7 42.6 36.8–48.6 44.1 39.7–48.5 45.1 42.2–48.1 44.8 42.4–47.3 3120 10,424
Mozambique 2011 45.9 44.3–47.5 48.2 44.7–51.7 51.4 49.1–53.7 43.6 41.6–45.5 46.2 44.7–47.7 5824 13,745
Mozambique 2015 23.0 21.2–24.9 32.0 28.2–36.2 31.7 28.7–34.9 20.4 18.4–22.4 24.7 23.0–26.4 2874 6946
Namibia 2013 39.7 35.0–44.6 31.8 28.7–34.9 34.1 30.3–38.1 34.6 31.0–38.5 34.3 31.7–37.1 1447 9176
Nigeria 2008 29.6 26.0–33.5 29.7 26.3–33.5 26.8 23.2–30.6 30.9 26.9–35.2 29.7 26.6–33.0 19,204 33,385
Nigeria 2013 23.8 22.4–25.2 29.5 28.0–31.1 27.3 25.5–29.2 25.1 23.6–26.7 25.9 24.7–27.1 22,253 38,948
Rwanda 2005 39.7 37.6–41.7 27.8 22.2–34.3 37.7 33.2–42.3 38.9 36.7–41.0 38.7 36.7–40.6 2537 11,321
Rwanda 2014 42.2 39.7–44.7 25.1 20.1–30.9 34.0 29.5–38.9 41.8 39.2–44.5 40.2 37.9–42.6 1905 13,497
Sao Tome 2008 37.0 33.7–40.5 31.8 27.4–36.6 36.9 31.7–42.5 35.1 31.6–38.8 35.9 32.9–39.0 1728 2615
Senegal 2017 28.2 26.2–30.2 20.2 16.4–24.5 26.3 23.7–29.0 27.5 25.2–29.8 27.0 25.3–28.8 2660 16,787
Sierra leone 2013 48.1 46.1–50.2 52.1 48.1–56.1 49.6 46.4–52.8 48.3 46.0–50.6 48.7 46.9–50.6 4307 16,658
South Africa 2016 30.1 26.3–34.1 22.8 21.3–24.3 23.1 21.2–25.1 24.6 22.5–26.8 23.7 22.3–25.2 4003 8514
Tanzania 2010 45.6 43.8–47.4 21.5 18.5–24.8 39.6 36.4-43.0 43.5 41.6-45.6 42.7 41.0-44.4 5687 10139
Tanzania 2015 48.5 47.0–50.1 31.2 28.6–34.0 45.2 42.7–47.8 45.6 44.0–47.3 45.5 44.1–46.9 7597 13266
Togo 2013 39.5 37.5–41.4 30.8 28.1–33.7 31.5 28.9–34.1 40.7 38.5–43.0 37.5 35.8–39.3 5374 9480
Uganda 2006 68.4 64.3–72.2 54.1 47.3–60.7 56.6 49.4–63.6 67.8 63.9–71.6 66.2 62.9–69.4 1748 8531
Uganda 2011 61.1 58.3–63.8 46.7 41.8–51.6 52.4 47.7–57.0 59.5 56.6–62.4 57.8 55.2–60.2 1702 8674
Uganda 2016 60.7 59.3–62.1 45.3 43.0–47.6 47.3 44.3–50.3 59.4 58.0–60.8 56.9 55.6–58.2 7536 18506
Zambia 2007 52.9 49.1–56.6 53.9 49.3–58.4 58.1 53.8–62.2 50.4 46.8–53.9 53.1 49.8–56.4 4229 7146
Zambia 2013 49.4 47.9–50.8 44.7 42.8–46.6 48.7 46.9–50.5 47.3 45.6–48.9 47.8 46.6–49.1 9403 16411
Zimbabwe 2005 47.9 45.5–50.3 45.3 43.1–47.6 39.5 36.6–42.6 49.5 47.4–51.5 46.5 44.8–48.2 4962 8907
Zimbabwe 2010 46.1 43.6–48.6 39.9 38.1–41.7 39.3 36.7–42.0 43.5 41.7–45.4 42.2 40.7–43.7 5280 9171
Zimbabwe 2015 46.7 44.2–49.2 43.3 41.6–45.0 44.3 42.1–46.5 44.3 42.4–46.2 44.3 42.9–45.8 5800 9955