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Table 2 Bivariate analysis by number of children and education levels

From: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of cervical cancer prevention and pap smears in two low-income communities in Lima, Peru

  Women with 0 children Women with 1–3 children Women with 4 + children Low Education High Education Pampas Oasis Total
(n = 20) (n = 141) (n = 63) (n = 65) (n = 159) (n = 101) (n = 123) (n = 224)
% (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n)  
Knowledge
Know at least one place to go to get a Pap smear 90.0 (18) 96.5 (136) 98.4 (62) 98.5 (64) 95.6 (152) 92.0 (93)* 100.0 (100)* 96.4 (216)
Cervical cancer can be prevented 100.0 (20) 95.0 (134) 92.0 (58) 87.7 (57)* 97.5 (155)* 96.0 (97) 93.5 (115) 94.6 (224)
Women should get Pap smears every 1–3 years 80.0 (16) 91.5 (129) 88.9 (56) 89.2 (58) 90.6 (144) 85.2 (86)* 94.3 (116)* 89.7 (201)
Cervical cancer can be cured 70.0 (14) 83.7 (118) 81.0 (51) 84.6 (55) 80.5 (128) 83.2 (84) 80.5 (99) 81.7 (183)
A Pap smear causes no complication 79.5 (17) 63.1 (113) 77.8 (49) 65.6 (42)** 86.7 (137)** 77.8 (77) 82.9 (102) 79.9 (179)
Women should begin getting Pap smears within 1 year after starting sexual activity 75.0 (15) 74.5 (105) 74.6 (47) 64.6 (42)* 78.6 (125)* 72.3 (73) 76.4 (94) 74.6 (167)
Pap smears are free or < 10 PEN 25.0 (5)* 65.3 (92)* 65.1 (41)* 56.9 (37) 63.5 (101) 46.0 (46)* 74.8 (92)* 61.9 (138)
Know at least one method for preventing cervical cancer 45.0 (9) 62.4 (88) 58.7 (37) 44.6 (29)* 66.0 (105)* 57.4 (58) 61.8 (76) 59.8 (134)
Know at least one correct symptom of cervical cancer 55.0 (11) 48.9 (69) 44.4 (28) 40.0 (26) 51.6 (82) 48.5 (49) 48.0 (59) 48.2 (108)
Social Influences
Other women in their community are ashamed of getting a Pap smear 65.0 (13) 68.1 (96) 71.4 (45) 75.7 (49)* 66.0 (105)* 68.1 (64) 73.2 (90) 68.8 (154)
They have spoken to someone about their results and experiences 20.0 (4)** 58.9 (83)** 66.7 (42)** 55.4 (36) 58.5 (93) 69.2 (54) 64.7 (75) 57.6 (129)
Their partner approves of them getting a Pap smear 20.0 (4)** 48.2 (82)** 47.6 (30)** 40.0 (26) 56.6 (90) 56.7 (38) 70.9 (78) 51.8 (116)
Know someone that has had cervical cancer 10.0 (2)* 27.6 (39)* 46.0 (29)* 33.9 (22) 30.2 (48) 30.7 (31) 31.7 (39) 31.3 (70)
Other women in their community talk about cervical cancer 15.0 (3)** 23.4 (33)** 49.2 (31)** 33.9 (22) 28.3 (45) 29.3 (29) 30.9 (38) 29.9 (67)
Attitudes         
Women feel comfortable in the appointment with their OBGYN 55.0 (11)* 86.5 (122)* 85.7 (54)* 78.5 (51) 85.5 (136) 79.8 (79) 88.5 (108) 83.5 (187)
Women view Pap smears as being of very high importance (5 on a scale of 1 to 5) 75.0 (15) 72.3 (102) 63.5 (40) 55.4 (36)* 76.1 (121)* 63.0 (63)* 76.4 (94)* 70.1 (157)
Women that fear knowing the result of their Pap smear 45.0 (9) 42.6 (60) 41.3 (26) 50.8 (33) 39.0 (62) 40.4 (40) 44.7 (55) 42.2 (95)
Practices         
Women of premenopausal age that have had a Pap smear in the last year 10.0 (2)** 38.3 (54)** 15.9 (10)** 13.9 (9)** 35.9 (57)** 9.9 (10)** 45.5 (56)** 29.5 (66)
  1. *P < 0.05
  2. **P < 0.001 for differences between women with 0, 1–3, and 4 + children **P < 0.001 for differences between women with less than secondary school versus secondary school or high