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Table 2 Association of intimate partner violence and maternal health care services

From: Association between intimate partner violence and the use of maternal health care services among married Malawian women

  ANC visits ANC timing Institutional deliveries Skilled assistance during delivery PNC within 2 days after delivery
Variables aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Physical violencea 0.75 (0.19–2.84) 1.04 (0.79–1.36) 0.73 (0.46–1.18) 0.79 (0.52–1.19) 0.89 (0.63–1.25)
Sexual violenceb e 0.77 (0.56–1.06) 1.08 (0.64–1.82) 0.92 (0.59–1.45) 1.12 (0.75–1.66)
Emotional violencec 0.26 (0.04–1.60) 1.03 (0.78–1.37) 0.76 (0.50–1.14) 0.72 (0.49–1.07) 1.07 (0.78–1.49)
IPV (composite)d 0.32 (0.08–1.30) 0.89 (0.65–1.22) 0.66 (0.460.96) 0.64 (0.460.90) 0.92 (0.69–1.24)
  1. Models were adjusted for woman’s age, women’s educational level, parity, household wealth, region, residence, media exposure, distance to nearest health facility, partner age, and partner educational level
  2. IPV intimate partner violence, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ANC antenatal care, PNC postnatal care
  3. aReference; no physical violence
  4. bReference; no sexual violence
  5. cReference; no emotional violence
  6. dReference; no any violence experienced
  7. eThere were no samples in those who experienced sexual violence and those that had adequate ANC visits