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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratio (OR) of low score (< 2 SD) for each domain of the Korean-Ages & Stages Questionnaire (K-ASQ) and adjusted means of K-ASQ score, 1,891a children aged 0–2 of Panel Study on Korean Children, 2008–2010

From: Harmful alcohol use among mothers of under-five child: findings from the Panel Study on Korean Children

K-ASQ domain Adjusted OR (95% CI)b P Adjusted mean K-ASQ score (standardized)c P for difference
No harmful alcohol use Harmful alcohol use No harmful alcohol use Harmful alcohol use
Communication 1.00 (reference) 1.47 (0.43, 5.08) 0.543 0.02 (− 0.04, 0.09) − 0.18 (− 0.46, 0.10) 0.148
Fine motor skills 1.00 (reference) 2.49 (0.51, 12.07) 0.258 0.02 (− 0.05, 0.08) − 0.22 (− 0.51, 0.06) 0.096
Gross motor skills 1.00 (reference) 1.54 (0.35, 6.73) 0.569 0.06 (0.00, 0.12) − 0.08 (− 0.35, 0.18) 0.275
Personal and social skills 1.00 (reference) 1.48 (0.20, 11.00) 0.702 − 0.04 (− 0.11, 0.03) − 0.27 (− 0.55, 0.02) 0.110
Problem-solving ability 1.00 (reference) 2.32 (0.51, 10.61) 0.279 − 0.02 (− 0.09, 0.05) − 0.08 (− 0.36, 0.21) 0.680
  1. K-ASQ, Korean-Ages & Stages Questionnaire; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval
  2. aThere are 777 missing cases (12.2%) and the K-ASQ was not administered in 2011
  3. bCalculated using generalized estimating equation models including the effect of maternal and paternal age, highest education, preterm birth, year of survey and time-varying covariates (including maternal working status, monthly household income, plan for additional childbirth, psychological stress related with childcare and partner’s harmful alcohol use)
  4. cCalculated using generalized linear mixed models (GLMM). Maternal current smoking was not included in the GEE model for K-ASQ scores because the prevalence was extremely low (0.8%) in the K-ASQ population