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Table 4 Estimated model results of the influential factors in women's exposure to sexual violence

From: Determination of the factors affecting sexual violence against women in Turkey: a population-based analysis

Variables Binary logistic regression Binary probit regression
β Std. Error 95% CI β Std. Error 95% CI
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Survey year (reference category: 2008)
 2014 − 0.303a 0.066 − 0.432 − 0.174 − 0.171a 0.036 − 0.242 − 0.100
Region (reference category: TR1)
 TR2/TR4 0.069 0.128 − 0.181 0.319 0.037 0.069 − 0.099 0.173
 TR3 0.191 0.140 − 0.084 0.466 0.106 0.076 − 0.044 0.255
 TR6 0.091 0.134 − 0.173 0.355 0.044 0.074 − 0.100 0.189
 TR5/TR7 0.249b 0.123 0.008 0.490 0.145b 0.068 0.012 0.278
 TR8/TR9 0.261b 0.127 0.011 0.510 0.144b 0.069 0.008 0.280
 TRC 0.203 0.134 − 0.059 0.465 0.124 0.073 − 0.020 0.268
 TRA/TRB 0.501a 0.124 0.258 0.744 0.283a 0.068 0.150 0.417
Place of residence (reference category: rural)
 Urban − 0.112c 0.066 − 0.242 0.018 − 0.063c 0.036 − 0.134 0.009
Age (reference category: 15–24 years)
 25–34 years − 0.236c 0.127 − 0.484 0.013 − 0.122c 0.069 − 0.257 0.012
 35–44 years − 0.305b 0.136 − 0.571 − 0.038 − 0.162b 0.074 − 0.308 − 0.016
 45–54 years − 0.085 0.143 − 0.365 0.195 − 0.039 0.077 − 0.190 0.113
 55 + years − 0.137 0.167 − 0.464 0.191 − 0.071 0.091 − 0.249 0.108
Level of education (reference category: university)
 Illiterate 0.374c 0.203 − 0.024 0.772 0.206c 0.107 − 0.004 0.416
 Elementary school graduate 0.266 0.188 − 0.102 0.634 0.151 0.098 − 0.041 0.343
 Secondary school graduate 0.206 0.204 − 0.194 0.606 0.124 0.108 − 0.087 0.335
 High school graduate 0.150 0.190 − 0.222 0.523 0.081 0.099 − 0.112 0.274
Employment (reference category: unemployed)
 Employed 0.190b 0.077 0.039 0.341 0.103b 0.043 0.019 0.187
Marital status (reference category: widowed/divorced/separated)
 Single − 1.650a 0.335 − 2.306 − 0.994 − 0.846a 0.162 − 1.164 − 0.528
 Married − 0.422a 0.105 − 0.628 − 0.216 − 0.246a 0.060 − 0.364 − 0.129
Health condition (reference category: bad/very bad)
 Perfect/good − 0.293a 0.090 − 0.469 − 0.116 − 0.161a 0.050 − 0.259 − 0.063
 Not bad − 0.225a 0.081 − 0.383 − 0.066 − 0.123a 0.046 − 0.213 − 0.033
Number of children (reference category: no children)
 One child − 0.279c 0.151 − 0.574 0.016 − 0.150c 0.080 − 0.307 0.006
 Two or more children 0.016 0.136 − 0.251 0.283 0.007 0.073 − 0.136 0.149
Exposure to first-degree relative violence (reference category: no)
 Yes 0.307a 0.085 0.141 0.473 0.176a 0.048 0.081 0.270
Husband/partner's level of education (reference category: elementary school)
 Illiterate 0.438a 0.138 0.168 0.707 0.236a 0.077 0.085 0.386
 Secondary school graduate − 0.053 0.092 − 0.234 0.127 − 0.024 0.051 − 0.125 0.076
 High school graduate − 0.202b 0.092 − 0.383 − 0.022 − 0.115b 0.050 − 0.213 − 0.016
 University graduate − 0.127 0.140 − 0.401 0.147 − 0.078 0.075 − 0.225 0.068
Husband/partner's employment status (reference category: public sector)
 Unemployed 0.308b 0.119 0.075 0.541 0.176a 0.065 0.048 0.303
 Private sector 0.106 0.103 − 0.097 0.309 0.058 0.056 − 0.051 0.167
Husband/partner's alcohol usage (reference category: no)
 Yes 0.069 0.077 − 0.082 0.220 0.036 0.043 − 0.048 0.119
Husband/partner's gambling history (reference category: no)
 Yes 0.216 0.156 − 0.089 0.521 0.146 0.091 − 0.033 0.325
Husband/partner’s drug usage (reference category: no)
 Yes 0.730a 0.281 0.179 1.281 0.435a 0.167 0.108 0.762
Husband/partner's infidelity (reference category: no)
 Yes 0.493a 0.085 0.327 0.660 0.299a 0.050 0.202 0.397
Exposure to economic violence (reference category: no)
 Yes 0.728a 0.065 0.601 0.855 0.402a 0.036 0.332 0.473
Exposure to verbal abuse (reference category: no)
 Yes 1.394a 0.086 1.226 1.563 0.710a 0.042 0.628 0.792
Exposure to physical violence (reference category: no)
 Yes 1.450a 0.082 1.289 1.611 0.766a 0.041 0.686 0.846
 Constant − 3.550a 0.316 − 4.169 − 2.932 − 1.914a 0.167 − 2.242 − 1.586
  1. ap < 0.01, bp < 0.05, cp < 0.10; Std. Error: Standard Error; CI: Confidence Interval