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Table 2 Demographic characteristics and comorbidity profile for women diagnosed with HCV in BC in 2019, who did not progress to the next stage of HCV care

From: Women in the 2019 hepatitis C cascade of care: findings from the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers cohort study

  Anti-HCV positive   Not HCV RNA tested   Not genotyped
Women Men   Women Men   Women
  n % n % p-value n % n % p-value n %
Total 19,522 100 33,116 100   2725 100 5763 100   1068 100
Birth Cohort
<1945 974 5 1151 3.48 <0.001 188 6.9 256 4.44 <0.001 65 6.09
1945-1964 10,046 51.46 19,797 59.78   1345 49.36 3382 58.68   408 38.2
1965-1974 4162 21.32 7374 22.27   670 24.59 1440 24.99   235 22
≥1975 4340 22.23 4794 14.48   522 19.16 685 11.89   360 33.71
Ethnicity
East Asian 1045 5.35 1128 3.41 <0.001 181 6.64 190 3.3 <0.001 46 4.31
South Asian 872 4.47 1283 3.87   69 2.53 128 2.22   28 2.62
Other BC Residents 17,605 90.2 30,705 92.72   2475 90.82 5445 94.48   994 93.07
Material deprivation quintile
Q1 (most privileged) 2622 13.43 4912 14.83 <0.001 328 12.04 777 13.48 0.034 124 11.61
Q2 2985 15.29 5018 15.15   383 14.06 812 14.09   134 12.55
Q3 3557 18.22 5851 17.67   472 17.32 905 15.7   199 18.63
Q4 4407 22.57 7025 21.21   629 23.08 1165 20.22   222 20.79
Q5 (most deprived) 5391 27.61 8972 27.09   722 26.5 1474 25.58   344 32.21
Unknown 560 2.87 1338 4.04   191 7.01 630 10.93   45 4.21
Social deprivation quintile
Q1 (most privileged) 2351 12.04 3643 11 <0.001 298 10.94 537 9.32 0.013 111 10.39
Q2 2337 11.97 3955 11.94   319 11.71 612 10.62   111 10.39
Q3 2992 15.33 4791 14.47   393 14.42 751 13.03   158 14.79
Q4 4332 22.19 6877 20.77   615 22.57 1181 20.49   217 20.32
Q5 (most deprived) 6950 35.6 12,512 37.78   909 33.36 2052 35.61   426 39.89
Unknown 560 2.87 1338 4.04   191 7.01 630 10.93   45 4.21
Urbanicity
Rural 2525 12.93 4396 13.27 0.077 303 11.12 646 11.21 0.453 105 9.83
Urban 16,683 85.46 27,699 83.64   2247 82.46 4531 78.62   930 87.08
Unknown 314 1.61 1021 3.08   175 6.42 586 10.17   33 3.09
History of Injection Drug Use
Yes 7265 37.21 11,005 33.23 <0.001 768 28.18 1391 24.14 <0.001 469 43.91
No 12,257 62.79 22,111 66.77   1957 71.82 4372 75.86   599 56.09
History of Opioid use*
Yes 4556 62.71 6370 57.88 <0.001 402 47.66 688 49.46 0.200 279 59.49
No 2709 37.29 4635 42.12   366 52.34 703 50.54   190 40.51
History of stimulant use*
Yes 4327 59.56 6023 54.73 <0.001 389 50.65 706 50.75 0.963 275 58.64
No 2938 40.44 4982 45.27   379 49.35 685 49.25   194 41.36
Problematic Alcohol Use
Yes 4952 25.37 8809 26.6 0.002 510 18.72 1172 20.34 0.080 263 24.63
No/Unknown 14,570 74.63 24,307 73.4   2215 81.28 4591 79.66   805 75.37
Major Mental Health Diagnosis
Yes 7379 37.8 9527 28.77 <0.001 733 26.9 1101 19.1 <0.001 386 36.14
No/Unknown 12,143 62.2 23,589 71.23   1992 73.1 4662 80.9   682 63.86
HBV Coinfection
Yes 905 4.64 1968 5.94 0.288 183 6.72 395 6.85 0.933 41 3.84
No/Unknown 18,617 95.36 31,148 94.05   2542 93.29 5368 93.14   1027 96.16
HIV/AIDS Coinfection
Yes 565 2.89 1826 5.51 <0.001 61 2.24 200 3.47 0.014 27 2.53
No/Unknown 18,957 97.11 31,290 94.48   2664 97.76 5563 96.53   1041 97.47
Cirrhosis
Yes 807 4.13 1474 4.45 0.084 55 2.02 115 2 0.944 27 2.53
No/Unknown 18,715 95.87 31,642 95.55   2670 97.98 5648 98   1041 97.47
Decompensated Cirrhosis
Yes 468 2.4 776 2.34 0.694 45 1.65 78 1.35 0.284 23 2.15
No/Unknown 19,054 97.6 32,340 97.66   2680 98.35 5685 98.65   1045 97.85
  Not Genotyped   Not treatment initiated  
Men   Women Men  
n % p-value n % n % p-value
Total 1923 100   3252 100 6188 100  
Birth Cohort
<1945 75 3.9 <0.001 183 5.63 195 3.15 <0.001
1945-1964 953 49.56   1332 40.96 3038 49.1  
1965-1974 507 26.37   778 23.92 1671 27  
≥1975 388 20.18   959 29.49 1284 20.75  
Ethnicity
East Asian 65 3.38 0.621 117 3.6 124 2 <0.001
South Asian 55 2.86   126 3.87 207 3.35  
Other BC Residents 1803 93.76   3009 92.53 5857 94.65  
Material Deprivation Quintile
Q1 (most privileged) 244 12.69 0.825 437 13.44 891 14.4 0.417
Q2 236 12.27   457 14.05 795 12.85  
Q3 329 17.11   522 16.05 1009 16.31  
Q4 395 20.54   720 22.14 1348 21.78  
Q5 (most deprived) 613 31.88   1027 31.58 1957 31.63  
Unknown 106 5.51   89 2.74 188 3.04  
Social Deprivation Quintile
Q1 (most privileged) 189 9.83 0.946 335 10.3 587 9.49 0.064
Q2 203 10.56   331 10.18 648 10.47  
Q3 267 13.88   478 14.7 809 13.07  
Q4 377 19.6   653 20.08 1208 19.52  
Q5 (most deprived) 781 40.61   1366 42 2748 44.41  
Unknown 106 5.51   89 2.74 188 3.04  
Urbanicity
Rural 209 10.87 0.305 396 12.18 702 11.34 0.285
Urban 1626 84.56   2815 86.56 5361 86.64  
Unknown 88 4.58   41 1.26 125 2.02  
History of Injection Drug Use
Yes 714 37.13 0.003 1619 49.78 2780 44.93 <0.001
No 1209 62.87   1633 50.22 3408 55.07  
History of Opioid use*
Yes 380 53.22 0.034 1081 66.77 1656 59.57 <0.001
No 334 46.78   538 33.23 1124 40.43  
History of stimulant use*
Yes 399 54.34 0.146 1036 63.99 1580 56.83 <0.001
No 326 45.66   583 36.01 1200 43.17  
Problematic Alcohol Use
Yes 540 28.08 0.041 985 30.29 2051 33.14 0.005
No/Unknown 1383 71.92   2267 69.71 4137 66.86  
Major Mental Health Diagnosis
Yes 567 29.49 0.002 1373 42.22 2105 34.02 <0.001
No/Unknown 1356 70.51   1879 57.78 4083 65.98  
HBV Coinfection
Yes 82 4.26 0.729 172 5.29 266 4.3 0.084
No/Unknown 1841 95.74   3080 94.71 5922 95.7  
HIV/AIDS Coinfection
Yes 43 2.24 0.793 167 5.14 313 5.06 0.971
No/Unknown 1880 97.77   3085 94.87 5875 94.94  
Cirrhosis
Yes 46 2.39 0.817 88 2.71 185 2.99 0.435
No/Unknown 1877 97.61   3164 97.29 6003 97.01  
Decompensated Cirrhosis
Yes 30 1.56 0.239 63 1.94 112 1.81 0.663
No/Unknown 1893 98.44   3189 98.06 6076 98.19  
  1. CI confidence interval, HR Hazard ratio. Multivariable analysis included adjustment for sex, Dukes class for test series and TNM4-stage for validation series, differentiation grade (G1–2 vs. G3–4), and age (as continuous). Age and TNM-stage/Dukes-classification also remained as independent predictors of prognosis in the multivariable mode