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Table 4 Cultural assets during puberty: results by age group, N (%)

From: Diné (Navajo) female perspectives on mother–daughter communication and cultural assets around the transition to womanhood: a cross-sectional survey

  Total Age group (years) p-value
< 20 20–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70+
Do you see your Diné culture as a source of strength? 200 1 42 44 30 36 28 9 0.94
 Yes 172 (86%) 1 (100%) 33 (79%) 39 (89%) 27 (90%) 31 (86%) 25 (89%) 7 (78%)  
 No 11 (6%) 0 (0%) 4 (10%) 1 (2%) 2 (7%) 2 (6%) 1 (4%) 0 (0%)  
 Prefer not to answer 12 (6%) 0 (0%) 3 (7%) 3 (7%) 1 (3%) 2 (6%) 2 (7%) 1 (11%)  
 Did not answer 5 (3%) 0 (0%) 2 (5%) 1 (2%) 0 (0%) 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 1 (11%)  
Remembering back to when you had your first period, did you have a rite of passage ceremony or celebration? 200 1 42 44 30 36 28 9 0.36
 Yes 101 (51%) 1 (100%) 26 (62%) 21 (48%) 12 (40%) 21 (58%) 12 (43%) 3 (33%)  
 No 90 (45%) 0 (0%) 16 (38%) 22 (50%) 16 (53%) 12 (33%) 14 (50%) 6 (67%)  
 Prefer not to answer 7 (4%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 2 (7%) 2 (6%) 2 (7%) 0 (0%)  
 Did not answer 2 (1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
If you did have a rite of passage ceremony/celebration, what type did you have (circle all that apply)a 101 1 26 21 12 21 12 3 0.04
 Traditional 101 (51%) 1 (100%) 25 (96%) 21 (100%) 9 (75%) 19 (90%) 11 (92%) 3 (100%)  
 Modern 90 (45%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (10%) 2 (17%) 0 (0%)  
 Church-related 7 (4%) 0 (0%) 2 (8%) 0 (0%) 3 (25%) 2 (10%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
 Other celebration 2 (1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (33%)  
If you did not have a rite of passage event, do you wish you did? 90 0 16 22 16 12 14 6 0.025
 Yes 45 (50%) 0 (0%) 13 (81%) 13 (59%) 7 (44%) 2 (17%) 6 (43%) 2 (33%)  
 No 26 (29%) 0 (0%) 2 (12%) 4 (18%) 6 (38%) 7 (58%) 5 (36%) 1 (17%)  
 N/A 7 (8%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (5%) 0 (0%) 2 (17%) 3 (21%) 1 (17%)  
 Prefer not to answer 9 (10%) 0 (0%) 1 (6%) 4 (18%) 2 (12%) 1 (8%) 0 (0%) 1 (17%)  
 Did not answer 3 (3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (6%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (17%)  
  1. Percentages reflect column totals and may not equal 100 due to rounding
  2. Significant p-values at the 0.05 level are in bold
  3. aPercentages reflect column totals and do not equal 100 due to allowance of multiple answers