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Table 1 Overall information, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and enrolment process, in three randomized studies for women with urinary incontinence (UI) using e-health

From: Quality of life in women with urinary incontinence seeking care using e-health

  RCT one RCT two RCT three
Time span 2009–2011 2013–2014 2017–2018
Inclusion criteria Female
Ability to read and write Swedish
Access to internet/smartphone/e-mail
Age 18–70 years
SUI ≥ 1 episode/week
Age ≥ 18 years
SUI ≥ 1 episode/week for the last 6 months
Age ≥ 18 years
UUI/MUI ≥ 2 episode/week for the last 12 months
Exclusion criteria Pregnancy
Previous UI surgery
Macroscopic haematuria
Known malignancy in the lower abdomen
Difficulties with passing urine
lePara>Intermenstrual bleedings
Impaired mobility or sensibility in the legs or lower abdomen
Severe psychiatric disorders, or HADS score
> 15 for depression or anxiety
Max. voiding volume < ≈ 0.3 L and mean micturition volume < ≈ 0.2 L
Severe psychiatric disorders
Max. voiding volume < 0.3 L
Use of another PFMT app
Use of mirabegron or antimuscarinic drugs
Painful urges or micturition
Previous pyelonephritis
≥3 urinary tract infections in the last 12 months
Previous stroke, neurological disease, or diabetes.
Max. voiding volume ≤ 0.15 L
Study invitations
Daily newspapers
Websites for medical advice
Daily newspapers
On the web
Posters at health centres and training centres
Enrolment process 1. Screening questionnaire homepage (n = 684)
2. Postal questionnaire, informed consent, 2-day bladder diary (n = 287)
3. Telephone interview urotherapist (n = 277)
1. Screening questionnaire homepage (n = 805)
2. Informed consent, 2-day bladder diary, maximum voiding volume (n = 345)
3. Web-based questionnaire, telephone interview (n = 129)
1. Screening questionnaire homepage (n = 1241)
2. Informed consent, 2-day bladder diary, maximum voiding volume, web-based questionnaire, telephone interview incontinence nurse or general practitioner (n = 142)
Randomization 250 women 123 women 123 women
Age span 23–70 years 27–72 years 31–77 years
Randomization arms Internet-based treatment programme (n = 124)
Postal treatment programme (n = 126)
Treatment app (n = 62)
Control group (n = 61)
Treatment app (n = 60)
Information app
(n = 63)
  1. RCT Randomized controlled trial; UI Urinary incontinence; SUI Stress UI; UUI/MUI Urgency UI/Mixed UI; HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PFMT Pelvic Floor Muscle Training