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Table 1 Overall information, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and enrolment process, in three randomized studies for women with urinary incontinence (UI) using e-health

From: Quality of life in women with urinary incontinence seeking care using e-health

  RCT one RCT two RCT three
Time span 2009–2011 2013–2014 2017–2018
Inclusion criteria Female
Ability to read and write Swedish
Access to internet/smartphone/e-mail
Age 18–70 years
SUI ≥ 1 episode/week
Age ≥ 18 years
SUI ≥ 1 episode/week for the last 6 months
Age ≥ 18 years
UUI/MUI ≥ 2 episode/week for the last 12 months
Exclusion criteria Pregnancy
Previous UI surgery
Macroscopic haematuria
Known malignancy in the lower abdomen
Difficulties with passing urine
lePara>Intermenstrual bleedings
Impaired mobility or sensibility in the legs or lower abdomen
Severe psychiatric disorders, or HADS score
> 15 for depression or anxiety
Max. voiding volume < ≈ 0.3 L and mean micturition volume < ≈ 0.2 L
Severe psychiatric disorders
Max. voiding volume < 0.3 L
Use of another PFMT app
Use of mirabegron or antimuscarinic drugs
Painful urges or micturition
Previous pyelonephritis
≥3 urinary tract infections in the last 12 months
Previous stroke, neurological disease, or diabetes.
Max. voiding volume ≤ 0.15 L
Study invitations www.econtinence.se
Daily newspapers
Websites for medical advice
Daily newspapers
On the web
Facebook
Posters at health centres and training centres
Newspapers
Facebook
Radio
TV
Enrolment process 1. Screening questionnaire homepage (n = 684)
2. Postal questionnaire, informed consent, 2-day bladder diary (n = 287)
3. Telephone interview urotherapist (n = 277)
1. Screening questionnaire homepage (n = 805)
2. Informed consent, 2-day bladder diary, maximum voiding volume (n = 345)
3. Web-based questionnaire, telephone interview (n = 129)
1. Screening questionnaire homepage (n = 1241)
2. Informed consent, 2-day bladder diary, maximum voiding volume, web-based questionnaire, telephone interview incontinence nurse or general practitioner (n = 142)
Randomization 250 women 123 women 123 women
Age span 23–70 years 27–72 years 31–77 years
Randomization arms Internet-based treatment programme (n = 124)
Postal treatment programme (n = 126)
Treatment app (n = 62)
Control group (n = 61)
Treatment app (n = 60)
Information app
(n = 63)
  1. RCT Randomized controlled trial; UI Urinary incontinence; SUI Stress UI; UUI/MUI Urgency UI/Mixed UI; HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PFMT Pelvic Floor Muscle Training