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Table 2 Multilevel logistic regression analysis of individual and community-level factors associated with wife-beating acceptance among reproductive age women in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016 (n = 15,683)

From: Determinants of wife-beating acceptance among reproductive age women in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey

Variable COR (95%CI) Model-0 ICC = 22.59% Model-I (AOR) (95%CI) Model-II (AOR) (95%CI) Model-III (AOR) (95%CI)
Age in years
15–19 1     
20–24 1.0 (0.8, 1.2)   1.0 (0.8, 1.2)   1.0 (0.8, 1.2)
25–29 1.1 (.9, 1.4)   0.9 (0.7, 1.2)   1.0 (0.8, 1.2)
30–34 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)   1.0 (0.7, 1.2)   1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
35–39 1.2 (1.0 1.5)   0.9 (0.7, 1.2)   1.0 (0.7, 1.3)
40–44 1.3 (1.1, 1.6)   1.0 (0.7, 1.3)   1.0 (0.8, 1.4)
45–49 1.1 (0.9, 1.5)   0.8 (0.6, 1.1)   0.9 (0.6, 1.2)
Religion
Orthodox 1     
Protestant 1.2 (0.9, 1.5)   1.1 (0.9, 1.4)   1.1 (0.9, 1.4)
Muslim 1.5 (1.2, 1.8)   1.0 (0.9, 1.2)   1.3 (1.1, 1.5)
Others* 1.2(0.6, 2.2)   1.1 (0.5, 2.2)   1.1 (0.6, 2.2)
Educational status
No education 1     
Primary 0.7 (0.6, 0.85)   0.8 (0.7, 0.9)   0.8 (0.7, 0.9)
Secondary 0.3 (0.2, 0.4   0.4 (0.3, 0.5)   0.4 (0.3, 0.5)
Higher 0.2 (0.1, 0.26)   0.3 (0.2, 0.4)   0.3 (0.2, 0.4)
House hold wealth index
Poorest 1     
Poorer 1.2 (0.9, 1.4)   1.2 (1.0, 1.5)   1.2 (0.9, 1.4)
Middle 0.9 (0.7, 1.0)   1.0 (0.8, 1.2)   0.9 (0.7, 1.1)
Richer 0.7 (0.5, 0.8)   0.8 (0.7, 1.0)   0.8 (0.6, 1.0)
Richest 0.4 (0.3, 0.5)   0.7 (0.5, 0.9)   0.8 (0.6, 1.1)
Marital status      
Never married 1     
Married 1.5 (1.3, 1.7)   1.4 (1.1, 1.7)   1.3 (1.1, 1.6)
Widowed/divorced 1.5 (1.2, 1.9)   1.3 (0.9, 1.7)   1.2 (0.9, 1.6)
Number of living children      
None 1     
1–2 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)   0.9 (0.7, 1.1   0.9 (0.7, 1.1)
3–4 1.4 (1.2, 1.6)   0.8 (0.6, 1.1)   0.8 (0.6, 1.1)
5 and above 1.4 (1.2, 1.6)   0.8 (0.6, 1.0)   0.8 (0.6, 1.0)
Frequency of watching television
Not at all 1     
Less than once a week 0.8 (0.6, 0.9)   1.0 (0.8, 1.2)   1.0 (0.8, 1.2)
At least once a week 0.4 (0.3, 0.5)   0.7 (0.6, 0.9)   0.8 (0.7, 1.1)
Frequency of listening radio      
Not at all 1      
Less than once a week 0.8 (0.6, 0.9)   1.0 (0.8, 1.1)   1.0 (0.8, 1.1)
At least once a week 0.6 (0.5, 0.7)   0.9 (0.7, 1.0)   0.9 (0.7, 1.0)
Residence
Urban 1     
Rural 4.5 (3.7, 5.3)    1.4 (0.9, 2.2) 1.3 (0.8, 2.0)
Region
Tigray 1     
Afar 1.2 (0.8, 1.8)    1.2 (0.9, 1.6) 0.8 (0.6, 1.1)
Amhara 1.1 (0.8,1.4)    0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 0.8 (0.6, 1.1)
Oromia 1.2 (0.9, 1.7    1.1 (0.9, 1.5) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2)
Somali 0.4 (0.3, 0.5)    0.3 (0.2, 0.4) 0.2 (0.1, 0.3)
Benishangul 0.6 (0.4, 0.9)    0.5 (0.4, 0.8) 0.5 (0.3, 0.7)
SNNP 0.9 (0.7, 1.3)    0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 0.8 (0.6, 1.0)
Gambela 0.79 (0.6, 1.1)    1.0 (0.7, 1.3) 0.9 (0.6, 1.3)
Harari 0.3 (0.2, 0.5)    0.5 (0.3,0.7) 0.3 (0.2, 0.5)
Addis Ababa 0.13 (0.1, 0.2)    0.4 (0.3 0.5) 0.3 (0.2, 0.5)
Dire Dawa 0.4 (0.3, 0.6)    0.7 (0.5, 1.0) 0.5 (0.3, 0.7)
Community-level of wealth
A low proportion of poor 1     
A high proportion of poor 2.3(1.9, 2.8)    1.3 (1.1, 1.6) 1.2 (1.1, 1.3)
Community-level of education
A high proportion of educated 1     
A low of educated 3.4 (2.8, 4.13)    1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 0.8 (0.7, 1.1)
Community-level of television exposure
A high proportion of exposed 1     
A low proportion of exposed 4.4 (3.6, 5.2)    1.6 (1.1, 2.5) 1.4 (1.2, 2.2)
Community-level of radio exposure
A high proportion of exposed 1     
A low proportion of exposed 2.4 (2.0, 2.9)    1.2 (0.98 1.5) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4)
  1. * = traditional, no religion and catholic, 1 = reference. Bold = significant factors at the final model