Skip to main content

Table 1 Distribution of women’s characteristics, and their association with the median time to second birth in DR Congo and Ethiopia

From: A comparative analysis of the influence of contraceptive use and fertility desire on the duration of second birth interval in four sub-Saharan African countries

Characteristic DR Congo Ethiopia
n (%) % SB MtSb (CI) n (%) % SB MtSb (CI)
Fertility desired    0.001***     < .001***
No more 4014(28.9) 95.7 34(33–34) 3897(38.5) 92.7 39(38–40)
Wanted 9191(66.2) 75.0 34(33–34) 5734(56.7) 71.7 45(43–46)
Undecided 679(4.9) 86.7 34(32–35) 483(4.8) 85.5 39(37–42)
Contraceptive use    0.289     < .001***
Never 9180(66.1) 81.2 33(33–34) 5138(50.8) 83.0 36(35–37)
Formal 2192(15.8) 83.3 34(34–35) 2103(20.8) 80.0 48(46–50)
Current 2512(18.1) 81.4 35(34–35) 2873(28.4) 76.3 53(51–55)
Contraception/desire     < .001***     < .001***
Never/no-more 2574(18.5) 94.9 33(32–34) 1863(18.4) 92.8 36(35–37)
Never/want 6102(43.9) 75.0 33(33–34) 2996(29.6) 76.7 36(35–37)
Never/undecided 504(3.6) 85.5 34(32–36) 279(2.8) 85.3 36(34–39)
Former/no-more 651(4.7) 96.3 34(33–35) 881(8.7) 92.4 43(41–45)
Former/want 1443(10.4) 76.8 34(33–35) 1122(11.1) 70.3 54(51–58)
Former/undecided 98(0.7) 91.8 36(32–40) 100(1.0) 80.0 46(40–66)
Current/no-more 789(5.7) 97.8 35(33–36) 1153(11.4) 92.9 43(41–46)
Current/want 1646(11.9) 73.3 35(34–36) 1616(16.0) 63.5 65(60–70)
Current/undecided 77(0.6) 88.3 30(26–34) 104(1.0) 91.3 44(38–53)
Ethnicity++     < .001***     < .001***
Bakongo Nod and Sud 1131(8.2) 77.7 39(37–41)    
Bas-Kasai et Kwilu-Kwngo 2195(15.8) 81.0 35(34–36)    
Cuvette central 1378(9.9) 81.1 34(33–35)    
Ubangi et Itimbiri 1712(12.3) 81.1 33(32–34)    
Uele Lac Albert 1255(9.0) 78.0 33(32–35)    
Basele-K, Man. et Kivu 2265(16.3) 83.7 32(32–33)    
Kasai, Katanga, Tanganika 3690(26.6) 83.2 32(32–33)    
Lunda/others 247(1.8) 82.6 37(34–39)    
Amhara     2189(21.7) 74.4 59(57–61)
Oromo     2352(23.3) 81.8 39(37–40)
Tigrie     1189(11.8) 77.6 50(48–53)
Affar     708(7.0) 82.5 32(30–34)
Somalie     1014(10.0) 87.7 28(28–30)
Guragie/others     2651(26.2) 82.4 41(40–42)
Residence     < .001***     < .001***
Urban 4471(32.2) 78.4 36(35–37) 2694(26.6) 68.9 64(61–68)
Rural 9413(67.8) 83.0 33(32–33) 7420(73.4) 84.7 38(37–38)
Religion+    0.102     < .001***
Christianity 13,236(95.6) 81.3 34(33–34) 5654(55.9) 77.5 49(48–50)
Islam 225(1.6) 84.9 34(30–36) 4328(42.8) 84.2 35(34–35)
Traditionalist/other 386(2.8) 88.3 33(31–34) 132(1.3) 86.4 35(33–40)
Age at FB     < .001***     < .001***
 < 20 8417(60.6) 82.5 34(33–34) 6336(62.6) 85.9 40(39–41)
20–24 4247(30.6) 81.8 33(33–34) 2904(28.7) 74.6 44(43–46)
 ≥ 25 1220(8.8) 73.9 37(35–38) 874(8.6) 60.6 53(47–61)
Wealth index     < .001***     < .001***
Low 5316(38.3) 81.6 33(33–34) 4088(40.4) 85.2 35(35–36)
Middle 4658(33.5) 84.1 33(32–33) 2287(22.6) 85.1 40(39–41)
High 3910(28.2) 78.4 36(35–37) 3739(37.0) 72.5 57(54–59)
Education     < .001***     < .001***
No education 2952(21.3) 87.6 33(33–34) 6097(60.3) 90.4 36(36–37)
Primary 5863(42.2) 85.4 33(32–33) 2688(26.6) 70.0 53(51–56)
Secondary 4835(34.8) 74.4 35(34–36) 856(8.5) 57.2 87(72–105)
Higher 234(1.7) 56.8 47(38–52) 473(4.7) 53.9 111(82–144)
Employment+    0.107     < .001***
Not working 3231(23.3) 74.5 34(33–35) 6491(64.2) 81.8 39(38–40)
Working 10,616(76.5) 83.7 34(33–34) 3623(35.8) 78.1 47(46–48)
Marital at FB     < .001***     < .001***
Never married 793(5.7) 27.9 70(60–86) 120(1.2) 26.7 na
Married before FB 11,673(84.1) 84.1 33(33–33) 9254(91.5) 80.3 41(41–42)
Married after FB 1418(10.2) 90.1 35(34–36) 740(7.3) 91.2 40(38–43)
FB sex    0.628    0.029*
Male 6959(50.1) 81.4 34(33–34) 5259(52.0) 79.5 42(41–43)
Female 6925(49.9) 81.7 34(33–34) 4855(48.0) 81.5 41(40–43)
FB survival    0.491    0.017*
Dead 951(6.8) 77.8 30(29–32) 503(5.0) 80.5 34(32–38)
Alive 12,933(93.2) 81.8 34(33–34) 9611(95.0) 80.5 42(41–43)
Total 13,884 81.5 34(33–34) 10,114 80.5 42(41–42)
  1. ***p < .001; **p < .01, *p < .05 (based on log-rank test); + missing (for only Ethiopia); +  + missing not reported; CI—95% Confidence interval; n—number of women; FB—first birth; SB—second birth; MtSb—Median survival time to second childbirth in months; na—not available owing to non-computation of the standard error of the estimated MtSb