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Table 2 Distribution of women’s characteristics, and their association with the median time to second birth in Nigeria and South Africa

From: A comparative analysis of the influence of contraceptive use and fertility desire on the duration of second birth interval in four sub-Saharan African countries

Characteristic Nigeria South Africa
n (%) % SB MtSb (CI) n (%) % SB MtSb (CI)
Fertility desired    0.046*     < .001***
No more 9047(30.9) 97.8 36(35–37) 3877(64.2) 80.1 64(62–66)
Wanted 18,283(62.4) 76.6 34(34–35) 1828(30.3) 39.8 105(96–115)
Undecided 1966(6.7) 90.9 35(34–36) 334(5.5) 54.8 83(74–93)
Contraceptive use     < .001***     < .001***
Never 19,898(67.9) 82.5 35(34–35) 1350(22.4) 64.5 78(73–84)
Formal 4643(15.8) 86.6 37(36–37) 1295(21.4) 66.8 72(68–76)
Current 4755(16.2) 88.5 35(34–36) 3394(56.2) 67.1 69(67–71)
Contraception/desire     < .001***     < .001***
Never/no-more 5377(18.4) 96.8 35(35–36) 872(14.4) 75.5 68(63–72)
Never/want 13,267(45.3) 76.1 34(34–35) 357(5.9) 42.6 121(99–139)
Never/undecided 1254(4.3) 89.4 34(33–35) 121(2.0) 50.4 97(84–124)
Former/no-more 1649(5.6) 98.8 38(37–39) 783(13.0) 82.8 63(59–66)
Former/want 2626(9.0) 78.2 36(35–37) 447(7.4) 40.0 124(98–143)
Former/undecided 368(1.3) 91.3 37(35–39) 65(1.1) 58.5 95(70–116)
Current/no-more 2021(6.9) 99.8 36(35–38) 2222(36.8) 81.0 63(60–65)
Current/want 2390(8.2) 77.9 34(33–35) 1024(17.0) 38.7 93(82–103)
Current/undecided 344(1.2) 95.9 36(33–38) 148(2.5) 56.8 71(62–82)
Ethnicity     < .001***    0.003**
Hausa 11,048(37.7) 87.6 33(33–33)    
Igbo 4220(14.4) 82.1 34(33–34)    
Yoruba 3619(12.4) 81.3 41(40–42)    
Don’t know/others 10,409(35.5) 82.3 36(36–37)    
Black/African     5259(87.1) 65.8 72(70–74)
White     131(2.2) 77.9 50(37–60)
Coloured     594(9.8) 69.0 74(67–77)
Indian/Asian/other     55(0.9) 74.5 69(49–87)
Residence     < .001***     < .001***
Urban 10,970(37.4) 82.9 36(36–37) 3373(55.9) 64.3 76(74–78)
Rural 18,326(62.6) 84.9 34(34–35) 2666(44.1) 69.3 66(64–69)
Religion     < .001***    
Christianity 13,444(45.9) 80.9 37(37–37)    
Islam 15,582(53.2) 87.0 34(33–34)    
Traditionalist/other 270(0.9) 84.4 33(31–35)    
Age at FB     < .001***     < .001***
 < 20 16,601(56.7) 87.8 35(34–35) 2857(47.3) 71.5 71(69–74)
20–24 8509(29.0) 81.6 35(35–36) 2293(38.0) 65.9 70(68–73)
 ≥ 25 4186(14.3) 74.8 36(35–37) 889(14.7) 52.0 77(70–84)
Wealth index     < .001***     < .001***
Low 10,208(34.8) 86.4 34(33–34) 2168(35.9) 69.2 64(62–67)
Middle 10,313(35.2) 84.5 35(35–35) 2139(35.4) 66.6 72(69–75)
High 8775(30.0) 81.0 37(37–38) 1732(28.7) 63.0 80(77–85)
Education     < .001***     < .001***
No education 12,207(41.7) 89.0 33(33–34) 158(2.6) 87.3 55(50–62)
Primary 5210(17.8) 89.9 36(35–37) 697(11.5) 83.8 58(55–63)
Secondary 9319(31.8) 76.7 37(36–37) 4547(75.3) 64.3 74(71–76)
Higher 2560(8.7) 76.3 37(36–38) 637(10.5) 57.8 78(71–84)
Employment     < .001***     < .001***
Not working 8172(27.9) 78.6 33(33–34) 3702(61.3) 63.4 67(66–70)
Working 21,124(72.1) 86.3 36(35–36) 2337(38.7) 71.4 77(75–80)
Marital at FB     < .001***     < .001***
Never married 903(3.1) 32.2 91(83–104) 2956(48.9) 52.3 82(79–85)
Married before FB 25,025(85.4) 84.9 34(34–35) 1297(21.5) 77.6 60(58–62)
Married after FB 3368(11.5) 92.6 37(37–38) 1786(29.6) 81.8 69(66–73)
FB sex    0.676    0.965
Male 15,019(51.3) 84.0 35(35–35) 3138(52.0) 66.4 71(69–74)
Female 14,277(48.7) 84.2 35(35–35) 2901(48.0) 66.5 72(69–75)
FB survival     < .001***    0.488
Dead 1958(6.7) 85.6 31(31–32) 219(3.6) 69.4 64(56–83)
Alive 27,338(93.3) 84.0 35(35–35) 5820(96.4) 66.4 71(70–74)
Total 29,296 84.1/0! 35(35–35) 6039 66.5 71(70–73)
  1. ***p < .001; **p < .01, *p < .05 (based on log-rank test); CI—95% Confidence interval; n—number of women; FB—first birth; SB—second birth; MtSb—Median survival time to second childbirth in months