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Table 3 Factors associated with time to second birth interval among women in DR Congo and Ethiopia

From: A comparative analysis of the influence of contraceptive use and fertility desire on the duration of second birth interval in four sub-Saharan African countries

Characteristic DR Congo Ethiopia
Crude model Model 1 Model 2 Crude model Model 1 Model 2
HR (95% CI) aHR (95% CI) aHR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) aHR (95% CI) aHR (95% CI)
Fertility desired
No more (R) 1 1 1 1 1 1
Wanted 0.93(0.89,0.96)c 0.93(0.89,0.96)c 0.93(0.89,0.97)c 0.64(0.62,0.67)c 0.64(0.61,0.67)c 0.64(0.61,0.67)c
Undecided 0.92(0.84,1.00) 0.92(0.84,1.00)a 0.92(0.84,1.00) 0.87(0.78,0.96)b 0.84(0.76,0.93)c 0.80(0.72,0.89)c
Contraceptive use
Never 1.03(0.98,1.08) 1.03(0.98,1.09) 0.88(0.84,0.93)c 1.46(1.38,1.53)c 1.45(1.37,1.52)c 1.02(0.96,1.08)
Formal 1.00(0.94,1.06) 1.00(0.94,1.07) 0.92(0.86,0.98)b 1.08(1.02,1.15)a 1.06(1.00,1.13) 1.02(0.95,1.08)
Current (R) 1 1 1 1 1 1
Ethnicity
Bakongo Nod&Sud (R) 1   1    
Bas-Kasai et Kwilu-Kwngo 1.20(1.10,1.30)c   1.10(1.01,1.20)a    
Cuvette central 1.26(1.15,1.38)c   1.12(1.02,1.23)a    
Ubangi et Itimbiri 1.35(1.24,1.46)c   1.21(1.11,1.33)c    
Uele Lac Albert 1.20(1.10,1.32)c   1.09(0.99,1.20)    
Basele-K, Man. et Kivu 1.45(1.33,1.57)c   1.33(1.22,1.44)c    
Kasai, Katanga,Tanganika 1.49(1.38,1.60)c   1.33(1.23,1.44)c    
Lunda/others 1.22(1.05,1.42)a   1.14(0.98,1.33)    
Amhara (R)     1   1
Oromo     1.51(1.41,1.61)c   1.38(1.29,1.49)c
Tigrie     1.15(1.06,1.24)b   1.17(1.08,1.27)c
Affar     1.88(1.71,2.06)c   1.39(1.24,1.56)c
Somalie     2.31(2.12,2.50)c   1.91(1.73,2.11)c
Guragie/others     1.46(1.37,1.56)c   1.44(1.35,1.54)c
Residence
Urban (R) 1   1 1   1
Rural 1.28(1.23,1.33)c   1.15(1.09,1.22)c 1.82(1.73,1.92)c   1.21(1.12,1.30)c
Religion
Christianity (R) 1   1 1   1
Islam 1.08(0.93,1.24)   0.98(0.84,1.13) 1.50(1.44,1.57)c   1.15(1.08,1.21)c
Traditionalist/other 1.11(1.00,1.24)   1.04(0.94,1.16) 1.54(1.28,1.85)c   1.23(1.01,1.48)a
Age at FB
 < 20 (R) 1   1 1   1
20–24 1.04(0.99,1.08)   1.06(1.01,1.10)b 0.77(0.74,0.81)c   0.88(0.84,0.93)c
 ≥ 25 0.78(0.73,0.84)c   0.82(0.77,0.88)c 0.56(0.51,0.61)c   0.73(0.66,0.79)c
Wealth index
Low (R) 1   1 1   1
Middle 1.04(0.99,1.08)   1.03(0.99,1.08) 0.87(0.82,0.92)c   0.99(0.93,1.05)
High 0.80(0.76,0.83)c   0.97(0.91,1.04) 0.57(0.54,0.60)c   0.95(0.88,1.02)
Education
No education (R) 1   1 1   1
Primary 1.07(1.02,1.12)b   1.08(1.03,1.14)b 0.53(0.50,0.56)c   0.63(0.60,0.67)c
Secondary 0.85(0.80,0.89)c   0.96(0.90,1.02) 0.37(0.33,0.40)c   0.53(0.48,0.58)c
Higher 0.49(0.41,0.58)c   0.71(0.59,0.85)c 0.33(0.29,0.37)c   0.53(0.46,0.61)c
Employment
Not working (R) 1   1 1   1
Working 1.04(0.99,1.09)   0.98(0.93,1.02) 0.81(0.77,0.85)c   0.95(0.90,0.99)a
Marital at FB
Never married (R) 1   1 1   1
Married before FB 3.30(2.88,3.77)c   2.88(2.52,3.30)c 5.43(3.84,7.68)c   3.94(2.78,5.58)c
Married after FB 2.72(2.36,3.14)c   2.49(2.16,2.88)c 6.47(4.54,9.23)c   4.42(3.09,6.31)c
FB sex
Male (R) 1    1   1
Female 1.01(0.97,1.05)    1.05(1.00,1.10)a   1.06(1.02,1.11)b
FB survival
Dead 0.97(0.90,1.05)    1.13(1.02,1.25)a   1.02(0.92,1.12)
Alive (R) 1    1   1
Deviance (−2ll)   193,721.0b 191,553.4c   139,264.8c 137,602.6c
  1. cp < .001; bp < .01, ap < .05; (a)HR—(adjusted) hazard ratio; CI—confidence interval; R—reference category; ll—loglikelihood; FB—first birth