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Table 5 Multivariable logistic regression analyzing the association between the recognition of the most identified risk factors and sociodemographic factors

From: Knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors among Palestinian women: a national cross-sectional study

Characteristic Having a weakened immune system (n = 5458) Infection with a sexually transmitted infection (n = 5388) Infection with HPV (n = 4693)
n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value
Age group
18–20 560 (10.3) Ref Ref 607 (11.3) Ref Ref 574 (12.2) Ref Ref
21–40 3355 (61.5) 0.97 (0.77–1.22) 0.81 3329 (61.8) 0.71 (0.56–0.91) 0.006 2878 (61.3) 0.76 (0.61–0.96) 0.018
41 or older 1543 (28.3) 1.16 (0.89–1.51) 0.29 1452 (26.9) 0.74 (0.56–0.97) 0.029 1241 (26.4) 0.81 (0.63–1.04) 0.10
Educational level
Illiterate 78 (1.4) Ref Ref 80 (1.5) Ref Ref 73 (1.6) Ref Ref
Primary 294 (5.4) 1.42 (0.93–2.19) 0.11 265 (4.9) 1.00 (0.66–1.53) 0.99 241 (5.1) 1.08 (0.71–1.63) 0.73
Preparatory 828 (15.2) 2.01 (1.34–3.00) 0.001 801 (14.9) 1.62 (1.09–2.41) 0.018 664 (14.1) 1.22 (0.83–1.80) 0.31
Secondary 1805 (33.1) 2.44 (1.64–3.62)  < 0.001 1787 (33.2) 1.90 (1.28–2.81) 0.001 1513 (32.2) 1.29 (0.88–1.89) 0.18
Diploma 559 (10.2) 2.08 (1.37–3.17) 0.001 563 (10.4) 1.84 (1.21–2.81) 0.004 511 (10.9) 1.52 (1.01–2.28) 0.043
Bachelor 1777 (32.6) 2.92 (1.94–4.39)  < 0.001 1778 (33.0) 2.40 (1.60–3.60)  < 0.001 1589 (33.9) 1.69 (1.14–2.50) 0.009
Postgraduate 117 (2.1) 4.63 (2.48–8.65)  < 0.001 114 (2.1) 3.64 (1.99–6.66)  < 0.001 102 (2.2) 2.47 (1.42–4.28) 0.001
Occupation
Housewife 3653 (66.9) Ref Ref 3591 (66.6) Ref Ref 3043 (64.8) Ref Ref
Employed 1122 (20.6) 0.92 (0.78–1.09) 0.35 1083 (20.1) 0.72 (0.61–0.85)  < 0.001 945 (20.1) 0.80 (0.69–0.93) 0.004
Retired 39 (0.7) 0.38 (0.22–0.65)  < 0.001 32 (0.6) 0.28 (0.17–0.47)  < 0.001 34 (0.7) 0.53 (0.32–0.88) 0.014
Student 644 (11.8) 1.09 (0.85–1.40) 0.49 682 (12.7) 0.89 (0.69–1.15) 0.38 671 (14.3) 1.31 (1.03–1.67) 0.027
Monthly income
 < 1450 NIS 1867 (34.2) Ref Ref 1851 (34.4) Ref Ref 1700 (36.2) Ref Ref
 ≥ 1450 NIS 3591 (65.8) 1.22 (1.03–1.44) 0.020 3537 (65.6) 1.19 (1.01–1.40) 0.041 2993 (63.8) 0.97 (0.84–1.13) 0.74
Residency
Gaza Strip 2139 (39.2) Ref Ref 2132 (39.6) Ref Ref 1977 (42.1) Ref Ref
WBJ 3319 (60.8) 0.70 (0.59–0.82)  < 0.001 3256 (60.4) 0.67 (0.57–0.79)  < 0.001 2716 (57.9) 0.53 (0.46–0.61)  < 0.001
Having a chronic disease
No 4358 (79.8) Ref Ref 4344 (80.6) Ref Ref 3815 (81.3) Ref Ref
Yes 1100 (20.2) 1.17 (0.99–1.38) 0.07 1044 (19.4) 1.12 (0.96–1.31) 0.15 878 (18.7) 0.99 (0.86–1.14) 0.88
Knowing someone with cancer
No 2180 (39.9) Ref Ref 2206 (40.9) Ref Ref 1891 (40.3) Ref Ref
Yes 3278 (60.1) 1.41 (1.25–1.58)  < 0.001 3182 (59.1) 1.15 (1.03–1.29) 0.015 2802 (59.7) 1.23 (1.11–1.37)  < 0.001
Marital status
Single 1183 (21.7) Ref Ref 1229 (22.8) Ref Ref 1168 (24.9) Ref Ref
Married 4021 (73.7) 1.55 (1.30–1.83)  < 0.001 3918 (72.7) 1.38 (1.17–1.64)  < 0.001 3306 (70.4) 1.08 (0.92–1.26) 0.36
Divorced 112 (2.1) 1.18 (0.80–1.74) 0.40 114 (2.1) 1.25 (0.84–1.85) 0.27 102 (2.2) 1.11 (0.77–1.60) 0.59
Widowed 142 (2.6) 1.51 (1.02–2.23) 0.039 127 (2.4) 1.05 (0.73–1.51) 0.79 117 (2.5) 1.06 (0.75–1.50) 0.75
Site of data collection
Public spaces 2015 (36.9) Ref Ref 2113 (39.2) Ref Ref 1966 (41.9) Ref Ref
Hospitals 1423 (26.1) 1.04 (0.89–1.20) 0.64 1362 (25.3) 0.72 (0.62–0.84)  < 0.001 1216 (25.9) 0.73 (0.64–0.84)  < 0.001
Primary healthcare centers 2020 (37.0) 1.41 (1.22–1.63)  < 0.001 1913 (35.5) 0.86 (0.75–0.99) 0.040 1511 (32.2) 0.56 (0.49–0.64)  < 0.001
Characteristic Having a relative with cervical cancer (n = 4250) Long term use of the contraceptive pill (n = 4236) Smoking any cigarettes at all (n = 4167)
n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value
Age group
18–20 418 (9.8) Ref Ref 446 (10.5) Ref Ref 405 (9.7) Ref Ref
21–40 2629 (61.9) 1.05 (0.86–1.29) 0.61 2588 (61.1) 0.96 (0.79–1.17) 0.71 2566 (61.6) 1.02 (0.83–1.24) 0.88
41 or older 1203 (28.3) 1.01 (0.81–1.28) 0.90 1202 (28.4) 1.02 (0.81–1.28) 0.90 1196 (28.7) 0.96 (0.76–1.21) 0.72
Educational level
Illiterate 78 (1.8) Ref Ref 77 (1.8) Ref Ref 82 (2.0) Ref Ref
Primary 264 (6.2) 1.02 (0.67–1.55) 0.93 240 (5.7) 0.89 (0.59–1.34) 0.56 258 (6.2) 0.89 (0.59–1.36) 0.61
Preparatory 685 (16.1) 0.96 (0.65–1.42) 0.85 631 (14.9) 0.91 (0.62–1.34) 0.63 701 (16.8) 0.99 (0.67–1.48) 0.99
Secondary 1387 (32.6) 0.86 (0.58–1.25) 0.42 1346 (31.8) 0.92 (0.63–1.35) 0.67 1371 (32.9) 0.83 (0.56–1.22) 0.34
Diploma 414 (9.7) 0.72 (0.48–1.08) 0.12 428 (10.1) 0.87 (0.58–1.29) 0.49 429 (10.3) 0.79 (0.53–1.19) 0.26
Bachelor 1338 (31.5) 0.88 (0.59–1.30) 0.52 1417 (33.5) 1.13 (0.76–1.66) 0.55 1245 (29.9) 0.78 (0.52–1.16) 0.22
Postgraduate 84 (2.0) 0.91 (0.54–1.55) 0.74 97 (2.3) 1.56 (0.91–2.66) 0.11 81 (1.9) 0.94 (0.55–1.58) 0.81
Occupation
Housewife 2900 (68.2) Ref Ref 2776 (65.5) Ref Ref 2884 (69.2) Ref Ref
Employed 854 (20.1) 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 0.21 907 (21.4) 1.01 (0.88–1.17) 0.85 796 (19.1) 0.93 (0.80–1.07) 0.29
Retired 29 (0.7) 0.63 (0.38–1.06) 0.08 33 (0.8) 0.66 (0.40–1.10) 0.11 33 (0.8) 0.79 (0.47–1.31) 0.35
Student 467 (11.0) 0.88 (0.71–1.09) 0.23 520 (12.3) 1.08 (0.87–1.34) 0.47 454 (10.9) 1.08 (0.88–1.34) 0.46
Monthly income
 < 1450 NIS 1394 (32.8) Ref Ref 1413 (33.4) Ref Ref 1476 (35.4) Ref Ref
 ≥ 1450 NIS 2856 (67.2) 1.13 (0.98–1.30) 0.09 2823 (66.6) 1.13 (0.98–1.30) 0.09 2691 (64.6) 0.93 (0.81–1.08) 0.34
Residency
Gaza Strip 1538 (36.2) Ref Ref 1620 (38.2) Ref Ref 1600 (38.4) Ref Ref
WBJ 2712 (63.8) 1.19 (1.04–1.36) 0.011 2616 (61.8) 0.85 (0.74–0.98) 0.021 2567 (61.6) 1.04 (0.91–1.19) 0.59
Having a chronic disease
No 3408 (80.2) Ref Ref 3367 (79.5) Ref Ref 3314 (79.5) Ref Ref
Yes 842 (19.8) 0.91 (0.79–1.04) 0.18 869 (20.5) 1.14 (0.99–1.30) 0.07 853 (20.5) 0.98 (0.86–1.13) 0.81
Knowing someone with cancer
No 1671 (39.3) Ref Ref 1666 (39.3) Ref Ref 1684 (40.4) Ref Ref
Yes 2579 (60.7) 1.33 (1.20–1.47)  < 0.001 2570 (60.7) 1.28 (1.16–1.42)  < 0.001 2483 (59.6) 1.21 (1.10–1.34)  < 0.001
Marital status
Single 895 (21.1) Ref Ref 954 (22.5) Ref Ref 829 (19.9) Ref Ref
Married 3165 (74.5) 1.22 (1.05–1.42) 0.009 3073 (72.5) 1.26 (1.08–1.46) 0.003 3121 (74.9) 1.41 (1.21–1.63)  < 0.001
Divorced 80 (1.9) 0.88 (0.62–1.24) 0.45 96 (2.3) 1.33 (0.94–1.90) 0.11 90 (2.2) 1.37 (0.97–1.94) 0.07
Widowed 110 (2.6) 1.06 (0.76–1.49) 0.72 113 (2.7) 1.19 (0.85–1.67) 0.31 127 (3.0) 1.81 (1.28–2.57) 0.001
Site of data collection
Public spaces 1531 (36.0) Ref Ref 1666 (39.3) Ref Ref 1432 (34.4) Ref Ref
Hospitals 1050 (24.7) 0.87 (0.77–0.99) 0.037 1091 (25.8) 0.85 (0.75–0.97) 0.016 1095 (26.3) 1.11 (0.98–1.26) 0.10
Primary healthcare centers 1669 (39.3) 1.52 (1.34–1.72)  < 0.001 1479 (34.9) 0.92 (0.82–1.04) 0.18 1640 (39.4) 1.58 (1.40–1.79)  < 0.001
  1. n, number of participants; AOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; WBJ, West Bank and Jerusalem; HPV, human papillomavirus
  2. aAdjusted for age-group, educational level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, residency, having a chronic disease, knowing someone with cancer, and site of data collection