Skip to main content

Table 6 Multivariable logistic regression analyizing the association between the recognition of other risk factors and sociodemographic factors

From: Knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors among Palestinian women: a national cross-sectional study

Characteristic Not going for regular smear (pap) tests (n = 3543) Having a husband who is not circumcised (n = 2818) Having a husband with many previous partners (n = 2562)
n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value
Age group
18–20 407 (11.5) Ref Ref 346 (12.3) Ref Ref 266 (10.4) Ref Ref
21–40 2188 (61.8) 0.75 (0.61–0.91) 0.004 1752 (62.2) 0.88 (0.72–1.07) 0.19 1524 (59.5) 1.02 (0.83–1.25) 0.86
41 or older 948 (26.8) 0.72 (0.57–0.90) 0.005 720 (25.6) 0.79 (0.63–0.99) 0.043 772 (30.1) 1.04 (0.82–1.32) 0.73
Educational level
Illiterate 64 (1.8) Ref Ref 55 (2.0) Ref Ref 64 (2.5) Ref Ref
Primary 201 (5.7) 0.87 (0.58–1.31) 0.50 157 (5.6) 0.84 (0.56–1.26) 0.40 192 (7.5) 0.85 (0.56–1.27) 0.42
Preparatory 569 (16.1) 0.98 (0.67–1.44) 0.94 409 (14.5) 0.80 (0.55–1.17) 0.26 433 (16.9) 0.69 (0.47–1.01) 0.06
Secondary 1137 (32.1) 0.82 (0.56–1.19) 0.29 913 (32.4) 0.79 (0.54–1.15) 0.23 801 (31.3) 0.57 (0.39–0.83) 0.003
Diploma 353 (10.0) 0.80 (0.54–1.18) 0.26 270 (9.6) 0.71 (0.47–1.05) 0.09 259 (10.1) 0.56 (0.38–0.83) 0.004
Bachelor 1153 (32.5) 1.00 (0.68–1.47) 0.99 956 (33.9) 0.90 (0.62–1.33) 0.61 759 (29.6) 0.56 (0.38–0.83) 0.003
Postgraduate 66 (1.9) 0.97 (0.58–1.63) 0.92 58 (2.1) 1.01 (0.60–1.68) 0.98 54 (2.1) 0.77 (0.46–1.28) 0.31
Occupation
Unemployed/Housewife 2414 (68.1) Ref Ref 1843 (65.4) Ref Ref 1734 (67.7) Ref Ref
Employed 674 (19.0) 0.87 (0.75–0.99) 0.047 545 (19.3) 0.89 (0.77–1.03) 0.11 486 (19.0) 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 0.06
Retired 22 (0.6) 0.62 (0.36–1.06) 0.08 19 (0.7) 0.77 (0.44–1.34) 0.35 29 (1.1) 1.24 (0.74–2.06) 0.41
Student 433 (12.2) 0.85 (0.69–1.06) 0.15 411 (14.6) 1.32 (1.07–1.63) 0.011 313 (12.2) 1.19 (0.96–1.49) 0.12
Monthly income
 < 1450 NIS 1369 (38.6) Ref Ref 1007 (35.7) Ref Ref 834 (32.6) Ref Ref
 ≥ 1450 NIS 2174 (61.4) 0.80 (0.70–0.92) 0.002 1811 (64.3) 0.92 (0.80–1.05) 0.23 1728 (67.4) 0.84 (0.73–0.97) 0.021
Residency
Gaza Strip 1507 (42.5) Ref Ref 1127 (40.0) Ref Ref 842 (32.9) Ref Ref
WBJ 2036 (57.5) 0.79 (0.69–0.90) 0.001 1691 (60.0) 0.89 (0.78–1.02) 0.09 1720 (67.1) 1.50 (1.30–1.72)  < 0.001
Having a chronic disease
No 2871 (81.0) Ref Ref 2313 (82.1) Ref Ref 2011 (78.5) Ref Ref
Yes 672 (19.0) 0.91 (0.80–1.05) 0.19 505 (17.9) 0.88 (0.77–1.01) 0.07 551 (21.5) 1.01 (0.88–1.16) 0.87
Knowing someone with cancer
No 1369 (38.6) Ref Ref 1150 (40.8) Ref Ref 1039 (40.6) Ref Ref
Yes 2174 (61.4) 1.40 (1.27–1.55)  < 0.001 1668 (59.2) 1.12 (1.02–1.24) 0.022 1523 (59.4) 1.09 (0.98–1.20) 0.12
Marital status
Single 811 (22.9) Ref Ref 668 (23.7) Ref Ref 552 (21.5) Ref Ref
Married 2557 (72.2) 0.97 (0.84–1.13) 0.70 2007 (71.2) 1.23 (1.06–1.43) 0.007 1880 (73.4) 1.20 (1.03–1.41) 0.019
Divorced 82 (2.3) 1.24 (0.87–1.75) 0.23 65 (2.3) 1.37 (0.97–1.94) 0.07 58 (2.3) 1.22 (0.86–1.74) 0.27
Widowed 93 (2.6) 1.00 (0.71–1.40) 0.99 78 (2.8) 1.43 (1.02–2.01) 0.039 72 (2.8) 1.00 (0.71–1.42) 0.99
Site of data collection
Public spaces 1266 (35.7) Ref Ref 1147 (40.7) Ref Ref 976 (38.1) Ref Ref
Hospitals 858 (24.2) 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.45 722 (25.6) 0.88 (0.78–1.01) 0.06 792 (30.9) 1.18 (1.03–1.34) 0.014
Primary healthcare centers 1419 (40.1) 1.47 (1.31–1.66)  < 0.001 949 (33.7) 0.85 (0.75–0.96) 0.007 794 (31.0) 0.80 (0.71–0.91) 0.001
Characteristic Being married at a young age (before age 17)
(n = 2197)
Having many children (five or more)
(n = 1597)
n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value n (%) AOR (95% CI)a p value
Age group
18–20 241 (11.0) Ref Ref 142 (8.9) Ref Ref
21–40 1318 (60.0) 1.03 (0.83–1.28) 0.77 970 (60.7) 1.21 (0.95–1.55) 0.12
41 or older 638 (29.0) 1.22 (0.96–1.56) 0.10 485 (30.4) 1.47 (1.11–1.94) 0.007
Educational level
Illiterate 46 (2.1) Ref Ref 33 (2.1) Ref Ref
Primary 115 (5.2) 0.73 (0.48–1.12) 0.15 93 (5.8) 0.91 (0.57–1.45) 0.70
Preparatory 261 (11.9) 0.65 (0.44–0.97) 0.035 210 (13.1) 0.82 (0.53–1.28) 0.39
Secondary 646 (29.4) 0.82 (0.56–1.21) 0.32 470 (29.4) 0.93 (0.61–1.43) 0.76
Diploma 246 (11.2) 0.96 (0.63–1.45) 0.84 176 (11.0) 1.00 (0.64–1.58) 0.99
Bachelor 821 (37.4) 1.19 (0.80–1.77) 0.39 571 (35.8) 1.22 (0.79–1.89) 0.37
Postgraduate 62 (2.8) 1.67 (0.99–2.82) 0.054 44 (2.8) 1.59 (0.90–2.81) 0.11
Occupation
Unemployed/housewife 1345 (61.2) Ref Ref 1007 (63.1) Ref Ref
Employed 517 (23.5) 0.99 (0.85–1.15) 0.86 389 (24.4) 1.04 (0.88–1.22) 0.66
Retired 32 (1.5) 1.39 (0.84–2.31) 0.20 22 (1.4) 1.12 (0.65–1.94) 0.67
Student 303 (13.8) 1.08 (0.86–1.35) 0.49 179 (11.2) 0.88 (0.68–1.13) 0.31
Monthly income
 < 1450 NIS 717 (32.6) Ref Ref 544 (34.1) Ref Ref
 ≥ 1450 NIS 1480 (67.4) 0.85 (0.73–0.99) 0.032 1053 (65.9) 0.77 (0.65–0.90) 0.002
Residency
Gaza Strip 779 (35.5) Ref Ref 559 (35.0) Ref Ref
WBJ 1418 (64.5) 1.19 (1.03–1.37) 0.017 1038 (65.0) 1.30 (1.11–1.52) 0.001
Having a chronic disease
No 1742 (79.3) Ref Ref 1268 (79.4) Ref Ref
Yes 455 (20.7) 1.11 (0.96–1.28) 0.15 329 (20.6) 1.00 (0.86–1.18) 0.96
Knowing someone with cancer
No 920 (41.9) Ref Ref 710 (44.5) Ref Ref
Yes 1277 (58.1) 1.03 (0.93–1.15) 0.57 887 (55.5) 0.91 (0.81–1.02) 0.09
Marital status
Single 579 (26.4) Ref Ref 396 (24.8) Ref Ref
Married 1497 (68.1) 0.92 (0.79–1.08) 0.30 1099 (68.8) 0.85 (0.72–1.01) 0.07
Divorced 58 (2.6) 1.17 (0.82–1.66) 0.39 51 (3.2) 1.36 (0.94–1.96) 0.10
Widowed 63 (2.9) 0.96 (0.67–1.36) 0.81 51 (3.2) 0.99 (0.68–1.45) 0.98
Site of data collection
Public spaces 921 (41.9) Ref Ref 631 (39.5) Ref Ref
Hospitals 577 (26.3) 0.95 (0.83–1.09) 0.44 442 (27.7) 1.05 (0.91–1.22) 0.49
Primary healthcare centers 699 (31.8) 0.85 (0.75–0.97) 0.013 524 (32.8) 0.93 (0.81–1.07) 0.34
  1. n, number of participants; AOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; WBJ, West Bank and Jerusalem
  2. aAdjusted for age-group, educational level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, residency, having a chronic disease, knowing someone with cancer, and site of data collection