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Table 1 Prevalence of various type of spousal violence among ever-married women and its association with (a) household characteristics, (b) women characteristics

From: Spousal violence against women and its consequences on pregnancy outcomes and reproductive health of women in India

  Physical violence Emotional violence Sexual violence Any violence n
(a) Household characteristics
Place of residence *** *** *** ***  
 Urban 24.3 12.0 5.2 27.7 21,461
 Rural 32.7 14.8 7.9 36.3 40,445
Wealth Index *** *** *** ***  
 Poorest 42.2 19.2 11.6 46.0 10,550
 Poorer 36.8 16.5 8.4 40.7 11,974
 Middle 31.4 15.0 7.1 35.3 12,793
 Richer 25.7 12.0 5.3 29.1 13,140
 Richest 16.2 8.0 3.5 19.1 13,449
Religion *** *** *** ***  
 Hindu 30.5 14.0 7.0 34.0 50,215
 Muslim 27.1 14.1 6.7 31.5 8449
 Christians 28.8 14.0 7.2 33.3 1474
 Others 21.8 7.9 6.5 23.3 1769
Caste *** *** *** ***  
 Schedule caste (SC) 37.1 17.4 9.1 40.6 12,050
 Schedule tribe (ST) 32.7 15.6 8.7 36.5 5684
 OBC 30.8 14.1 6.8 34.6 27,350
 Others 21.9 10.3 5.1 25.0 16,823
India 29.8 13.8 6.96 33.3 61,906
(b) Women's characteristics
Age Interval *** *** *** ***  
 15–24 24.19 11.98 6.41 11.98 11,356
 25–34 30.32 13.55 7.24 13.55 22,967
 35–44 31.59 14.59 6.98 14.59 19,164
 45–49 31.70 15.41 6.91 15.41 8418
Children ever born *** *** *** ***  
 0 18.6 11.6 5.7 23.0 6123
 1 23.1 12.1 6.0 26.3 11,407
 2 28.8 12.8 5.9 32.1 20,198
 3+  36.6 16.1 8.7 40.3 24,178
Women's education *** *** *** ***  
 No education 39.7 18.4 9.4 43.6 20,114
 Primary 36.5 15.8 8.5 39.7 8847
 Secondary 24.1 11.5 5.6 27.8 26,522
 Higher 12.8 6.3 2.9 15.0 6423
Current marital status *** *** *** ***  
 Married 29.2 13.2 6.7 32.8 58,480
 Widowed 29.9 14.3 8.5 31.9 2477
 Divorced 60.9 54.2 24.8 65.8 289
 No longer living together 68.5 54.5 21.1 75.4 661
Intergenerational Violence *** *** *** ***  
 No 23.2 10.6 5.1 26.3 46,780
 Yes 53.1 25.4 13.5 57.7 13,011
 Don’t know 33.1 13.8 7.5 38.2 2115
Contraception use *** ** * ***  
 Not using 28.0 14.0 7.3 31.9 28,507
 Using 31.3 13.7 6.7 34.5 33,399
  1. Significant level: ***p ≤ 0.001; **p ≤ 0.01;*p ≤ 0.05
  2. n is un-weighted sample