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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits and the menstrual pattern of the study participants (N = 550)

From: Prevalence, risk factors, and management practices of primary dysmenorrhea among young females

Characteristic n (%)a Dysmenorrhea Pc
No
n = 105 (19.1%)b
Yes
n = 445 (80.9%)b
Academic specialization     0.003d
 Medical 275 (50) 39 (14.2) 236 (85.8)  
 Non-medical 275 (50) 66 (24) 209 (76)  
Academic level     0.46
 Undergraduate 478 (86.9) 89 (18.6) 389 (81.4)  
 Postgraduate 72 (13.1) 16 (22.3) 56 (77.7)  
Age (mean = 21.82, SD =  ± 2.77, range = 18–30)     0.11
 18–24 463 (84.2) 83 (17.9) 380 (82.1)  
 > 25 87 (15.8) 22 (25.2) 65 (74.8)  
BMI category (Kg/m2, mean = 22.2, SD =  ± 3.38, range = 15.2–37.5)     0.21
 Underweight (< 18.5) 59 (10.7) 7 (11.8) 52 (88.2)  
 Normal weight (18.5–24.9) 394 (71.6) 84 (21.3) 310 (78.7)  
 Overweight (25–29.9) 78 (14.2) 11 (14.1) 67 (85.9)  
 Obese (≥ 30) 19 (3.5) 3 (15.8) 16 (84.2)  
Marital status     0.01
 Single 514 (93.5) 92 (17.9) 422 (82.1)  
 Married 36 (6.5) 13 (36.1) 23 (63.9)  
Parity     < 0.001d
 No 522 (94.9) 93 (17.8) 429 (82.2)  
 Yes 28 (5.1) 12 (42.8) 16 (57.2)  
Smoke     0.21
 No 413 (75.1) 84 (20.3) 329 (79.7)  
 Yes 137 (24.9) 21 (15.3) 116 (84.7)  
Alcohol     0.84
 No 502 (91.3) 95 (18.9) 407 (81.1)  
 Yes 48 (8.7) 10 (20.8) 38 (79.2)  
Family history of dysmenorrhea     < 0.001d
 No 262 (47.6) 73 (27.8) 189 (72.2)  
 Yes 288 (52.4) 32 (11.2) 256 (88.8)  
History of weight loss attempt within the last year     0.001d
 No 251 (45.6) 63 (25.1) 188 (74.9)  
 Yes 299 (54.4) 42 (14) 257 (86)  
Exercise (mean time = 1.32 h/week, SD =  ± 2.55, range = 0–21)     0.01d
 No 295 (53.6) 55 (18.6) 240 (81.4)  
 Once to twice weekly 158 (28.7) 32 (20.2) 126 (79.8)  
 Three to four times weekly 63 (11.5) 8 (12.7) 55 (87.3)  
 Five to six times weekly 18 (3.3) 2 (11.2) 16 (88.8)  
 On daily basis 16 (2.9) 8 (50) 8 (50)  
Menarcheal age (mean = 12.35 years, SD =  ± 1.34)     0.32
 9–11 (early onset) 129 (23.5) 20 (15.5) 109 (84.5)  
 12–14 (Normative onset) 395 (71.8) 80 (20.2) 315(79.8)  
 15–16 (Late onset) 26 (4.7) 5 (19.2) 21 (80.8)  
Period regularity     0.43
 Irregular 77 (14) 12 (15.5) 65 (84.5)  
 Regular 473 (86) 93 (19.6) 380 (80.4)  
Menstrual cycle length (mean = 28.52 days, SD =  ± 3.51, range = 20–45)     0.09
 21–35 days 520 (94.5) 103 (19.8) 417 (80.2)  
 < 21 or > 35 days 30 (5.5) 2 (6.6) 28 (93.4)  
Length of menstrual flow (mean = 6.04 days, SD =  ± 1.35, range = 2–14)     0.56
 Normal (3–7 days) 504 (91.6) 98 (19.4) 406 (80.6)  
 Abnormal (< 3 or > 7 days) 46 (8.4) 7 (15.2) 39 (80.8)  
The intensity of menstrual blood flow     < 0.001*
 Light 31 (5.6) 13 (41.9) 18 (58.1)  
 Moderate 412 (74.9) 86 (20.8) 326 (79.1)  
 Heavy 107 (19.5) 6 (5.6) 101 (94.4)  
  1. BMI body mass index, SD standard deviation
  2. aPercentages for the columns
  3. bPercentages for the row
  4. cUnivariate analysis was conducted to test the associations between variables with PD
  5. dStatistically significant (P < 0.05)