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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants by mammographic breast density among women in Karachi, Pakistan (n = 477)

From: Factors associated with mammographic breast density among women in Karachi Pakistan

Variables Category Fatty/fibroglandular (n = 178) Heterogeneously dense (n = 198) Dense (n = 101) p value*
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Age groups (years)       < 0.001
   < 35 7 (3.9) 12 (6.1) 13 (12.9)  
  35–45 30 (16.9) 69 (34.8) 46 (45.5)  
  46–54 57 (32.0) 51 (25.8) 29 (28.7)  
  55 and above 84 (47.2) 66 (33.3) 13 (12.9)  
Education      0.023
   < Grade8 33 (18.6) 31 (15.7) 13 (12.9)  
  Grades 8–12 65 (36.7) 54 (27.4) 24 (23.8)  
   > Grade12 79 (44.6) 112 (56.9) 64 (63.4)  
Socioeconomic Status SES      0.866
  Upper 43 (25.6) 48 (25.3) 20 (20.0)  
  Middle 114 (67.9) 129 (67.9) 73 (73.0)  
  Lower 11 (6.5) 13 (6.8) 7 (7.0)  
Parity      0.004
  Nullipara 21 (12.5) 18 (9.5) 21 (21.0)  
  1–3 78 (46.4) 112 (58.9) 55 (55.0)  
   > 3 69 (41.1) 60 (31.6) 24 (24.0)  
Age of mother at first live birth (AFB)      0.060
   < 20 years 39 (25.8) 29 (16.2) 11 (13.9)  
  20–29 years 98 (64.9) 126 (70.4) 54 (68.4)  
   > 30 years 14 (9.3) 24 (13.4) 14 (17.7)  
Breastfeeding duration      0.910
   < 12 months 26 (19.3) 35 (21.2) 15 (19.7)  
   > 12 months 109 (80.7) 130 (78.8) 61 (80.3)  
Age at menarche (years)      0.487
   < 12 years 26 (16.3) 22 (12.2) 12 (12.6)  
  12–13 years 95 (59.4) 105 (58.0) 51 (53.7)  
   > 14 years 39 (24.4) 54 (29.8) 32 (33.7)  
History of any comorbid      0.01
  Yes 102 (57.3) 95 (48.0) 39 (38.6)  
  No 76 (42.7) 103 (52.0) 62 (61.4)  
History of benign breast disease      0.001
  Yes 33 (19.9) 61 (32.6) 46 (46.5)  
  No 133 (80.1) 126 (67.4) 53 (53.5)  
Family history of breast cancer       < 0–001
  Yes 48 (28.6) 77 (40.7) 32 (32.0)  
  No 120 (71.4) 112 (59.3) 68 (68.0)  
Menopausal status       < 0.001
  Menopause 125 (74.4) 102 (54.3) 40 (40.4)  
  Premenopause 43 (25.6) 86 (45.7) 59 (59.6)  
Serum vitamin D level (ng/ml)      0.761
   < 20 78 (57.4) 82 (54.7) 47 (54.7)  
  20–30 21 (15.4) 30 (20.0) 19 (22.1)  
   > 30 37 (27.2) 38 (25.3) 20 (23.3)  
Mean BMI (SD) Menopausal women 30.4 (4.8) 28.4 (4.9) 25.4 (4.2)  < 0.001
  Premenopausal women 27.9 (5.0) 28.2 (4.7) 25.0 (3.8))  < 0.001
  1. BI-RADS: Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (fatty and scattered glandular dense = categories A and B, heterogeneously dense = C, dense = D); chi-square test*