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Table 3 Association of factors with mammographic breast density using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), among women in Karachi, Pakistan

From: Factors associated with mammographic breast density among women in Karachi Pakistan

Variable Category Heterogeneously dense Dense
OR 95%CI OR 95%CI
Age (years)  < 35 2.18 0.81, 5.85 12.00 4.04, 35.65
  35–45 2.93 1.65, 4.92 9.91 4.71, 20.84
  46–54 1.14 0.69, 1.87 3.29 1.58, 6.86
  55 and above Ref   Ref  
Socioeconomic status Upper 0.94 0.38, 2.32 0.73 0.24, 2.17
  Middle 0.95 0.41, 2.22 1.00 0.37, 2.71
  Lower Ref   Ref  
Parity Nullipara 0.95 0.47, 1.93 2.79 1.32, 5.91
   < 3 1.63 1.05, 2.53 1.94 1.10, 3.41
   > 3 Ref   Ref  
AFB* (years)  < 20 0.42 0.18, 0.97 0.28 0.10, 0.76
  20–29 0.79 0.38, 1.65 0.54 0.23, 1.22
   > 30 Ref   Ref  
Breastfeeding duration  < 12 months 1.13 0.65, 1.95 1.09 0.55, 2.16
   > 12 months Ref   Ref  
Age at menarche  < 12yrs 0.61 0.30, 1.23 0.56 0.25, 1.29
  12-13yrs 0.8 0.49, 1.31 0.65 0.37, 1.17
   > 14yrs Ref   Ref  
Menopause Menopause 0.38 0.24, 0.59 0.21 0.13, 0.36
  Premenopause Ref   Ref  
Age at menopause  < 45 0.92 0.48, 1.78 2.02 0.82, 5.01
   > 45 Ref   Ref  
History of benign Yes 1.72 1.08, 2.73 2.99 1.76, 5.09
  No Ref   Ref  
Breast cancer Yes 1.71 0.77, 1.77 0.66 0.39, 1.13
  No Ref   Ref  
BMI (kg/m2)*   0.94 0.90, 0.98 0.80 0.75, 0.86
Physical activity* (h/week) Walking 0.99 0.89, 1.09 0.95 0.83, 1.09
  Moderate exercise 1.02 0.98, 1.05 1.00 0.96, 1.05
  Vigorous exercise Ref   Ref  
Vitamin D (ng/ml)  < 20 1.02 0.59, 1.77 1.12 0.58, 2.14
  20–30 1.39 0.68, 2.85 1.67 0.73, 3.82
   > 30 1 (Ref)   1 (Ref)  
  1. Fatty and scattered glandular combined as the reference group. BI-RADS: Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (fatty and scattered glandular dense = categories A and B, heterogeneously dense = C, dense = D); BMI: body mass index OR: odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval AFB Age at first birth* mean (SD)*