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Table 1 Characteristics of social ecological risk-factors among Syrian refugee women in Jordan

From: Mental health of clinic-attending Syrian refugee women in Jordan: associations between social ecological risks factors and mental health symptoms

   Depression (n = 507) Anxiety (n = 503) Post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 506)
Total (n = 507) Participants not meeting depression criteria (n = 188) Participants meeting depression criteria (n = 319) Chi-square or T-test Participants not meeting anxiety criteria (n = 214) Participants meeting anxiety criteria (n = 289) Chi-square or T-test Participants not meeting PTSD criteria (n = 171) Participants meeting PTSD criteria (n = 335) Chi-square or T-test
n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD)
Individual risk factors           
Age (SD) 34.15 (10.99) 32.21 (10.50) 35.30 (11.13) p = 0.002a 31.39 (9.61) 36.23 (11.46) p < 0.001a 31.54 (10.21) 35.43 (11.11) p < 0.001a
Marriage status (%)           
 Unmarried 50 (9.86) 12 (6.38) 38 (11.91) p = 0.044 15 (7.01) 34 (11.76) p = 0.075 11 (6.43) 38 (11.34) p = 0.077
 Married 457 (90.14) 176 (93.62) 281 (88.09)   199 (92.99) 255 (88.24)   160 (93.57) 297 (88.66)  
Children under 18 in Household (SD) 3.39 (2.08) 3.40 (1.94) 3.39 (2.16) p = 0.971a 3.25 (1.89) 3.52 (2.21) p = 0.155a 3.14 (1.89) 3.53 (2.16) p = 0.0434a
Ability to read and write with ease (%)           
 No 439 (86.59) 166 (88.30) 273 (85.58) p = 0.386 184 (85.98) 251 (86.85) p = 0.778 145 (84.80) 293 (87.46) p = 0.405
 Yes 68 (13.41) 22 (11.70) 46 (14.42)   30 (14.02) 38 (13.15)   26 (15.20) 42 (12.54)  
Interpersonal risk factors           
Past year physical and/or sexual IPV (%)           
 Yes 173 (34.12) 37 (19.68) 136 (42.63) p < 0.001 43 (20.09) 129 (44.64) p < 0.001 22 (12.87) 151 (45.07) p < 0.001
 No 334 (65.88) 151 (80.32) 183 (57.37)   171 (79.91) 160 (55.36)   149 (87.13) 184 (54.93)  
Community and societal risk factors           
Number of postmigration stressors (SD) n = 494 7.43 (2.98) 5.94 (2.91) 8.32 (2.65) p < 0.001a 6.16 (3.15) 8.40 (2.44) p < 0.001a 5.49 (2.99) 8.46 (2.41) p < 0.001a
Covariates           
Years in Jordan (SD) 5.18 (1.38) 5.20 (1.38) 5.17 (1.38) p = 0.796a 5.01 (1.29) 5.32 (1.42) p = 0.0129a 5.06 (1.29) 5.24 (1.42) p = 0.918a
Time displaced in Syria (SD) n = 504           
Less than 1 month 201 (39.88) 90 (48.39) 111 (34.91)   95 (44.60) 105 (36.59)   80 (47.06) 121 (36.34)  
 1 month–less than 1 year 147 (29.17) 51 (27.42) 96 (30.19) p = 0.007 66 (30.99) 80 (27.87) p = 0.026 47 (27.65) 100 (30.03) p = 0.050
 1 year or longer 156 (30.95) 45 (24.19) 111 (34.91)   52 (24.41) 102 (35.54)   43 (25.29) 112 (33.63)  
Clinic location (%)           
 Amman 153 (30.18) 72 (38.30) 81 (25.39)   87 (40.65) 64 (22.15)   71 (41.52) 82 (24.48)  
 Zarqa 100 (19.72) 47 (25.00) 53 (16.61) p < 0.001 50 (23.36) 50 (17.30) p < 0.001 42 (24.56) 58 (17.31) p < 0.001
 Mafraq 126 (24.85) 30 (15.96) 96 (30.09)   36 (16.82) 89 (30.08)   31 (18.13) 94 (28.06)  
 Ramtha 128 (25.25) 39 (20.74) 89 (27.90)   41 (19.16) 86 (29.76)   27 (15.79) 101 (30.15)  
Governorate of origin in Syria (%)           
 Aleppo or Idlib 96 (18.93) 35 (18.62) 61 (19.12)   40 (18.69) 55 (19.03)   31 (18.13) 64 (19.10)  
 Al-Raqqah, Deir ez-Zor, or Hasaka 54 (10.65) 32 (17.02) 22 (6.90)   35 (16.36) 18 (6.23)   30 (17.54) 24 (7.16)  
 Damascus or Rif Dimashq 60 (11.83) 27 (14.36) 33 (10.34) p = 0.002 27 (12.62) 33 (11.42) p = 0.005 21 (12.28) 39 (11.64) p = 0.001
 As-Suwayda, Daraa or Qunitra 182 (35.90) 59 (31.38) 123 (38.56)   66 (30.84) 115 (39.79)   46 (26.90) 136 (40.60)  
 Hama or Homs 115 (22.68) 35 (18.62) 80 (25.08)   46 (21.50) 68 (23.53)   43 (25.15) 72 (21.49)  
  1. Chi-square test used unless otherwise noted; significant p-values (p < .05) are highlighted in bold
  2. SD standard deviation
  3. aT-test used