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Table 4 Effects of two exposures (PM10 and Tobacco Smoke) on Estradiol (E2), Progesterone (P) levels and E2/P ratio, after standardization to age and cycle length

From: Joint effect of particulate matter and cigarette smoke on women’s sex hormones

Variable Level Mean SE Between-subject effects Within-subject effects
p value p value (with H–F corrections)
Estradiol [pmol/l]—entire cycle
PM10 Low 14.3 1.07 [Ref.] [Ref.]
  High 17.0 1.07 0.08 0.02
Total Smoke Exposure nSM 13.8 1.06 [Ref.] [Ref.]
  SM 17.7 1.09 0.02 0.18
PM10 × Total Smoke Exposure Interaction effect    0.64 0.41
PM10 × Total Smoke Exposure (4 groups)* LowPM-nSM 12.4 1.10 [Ref.] [Ref.]
  HighPM-nSM 15.3 1.07 0.09 0.02
  LowPM-SM 16.5 1.11 0.04 0.17
  HighPM-SM 18.4 1.16 0.03 0.27
   Progesterone [pmol/l]—luteal phase
PM10 Low 130.4 1.08 [Ref.] [Ref.]
  High 130.7 1.08 0.99 0.19
Total Smoke Exposure nSM 129.0 1.07 [Ref.] [Ref.]
  SM 132.2 1.10 0.84 0.30
PM10 × Total Smoke Exposure Interaction effect    0.85 0.16
   Estradiol/Progesterone ratio—luteal phase
PM10 Low 0.1 1.11 [Ref.] [Ref.]
  High 0.2 1.12 0.11 < 0.01
Total Smoke Exposure nSM 0.1 1.09 [Ref.] [Ref.]
  SM 0.1 1.14 0.26 0.23
PM10 × Total Smoke Exposure Interaction effect    0.80 0.23
  1. Means were derived from calculations on log-transformed values and then back-transformed by taking the antilog
  2. *Model with dummy variables