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Table 2 Comparison of the outcomes between the study groups

From: Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for premenstrual syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

Outcomes Baseline Post-intervention
Intervention
n = 46
Control
n = 46
Intervention
n = 42
Control
n = 46
Adjusted differencea (95% CI) P
Primary outcomes       
Total score of premenstrual syndrome severityb (0–100) 20.1 (10.7) 20.4 (10.3) 10.4 (10.0) 20.2 (10.0) − 9.9 (− 13.3 to − 6.6) < 0.001
Quality of life and satisfaction (0–100)c       
 Peri-menstrual period 49.3 (16.4) 50.4 (12.8) 64.2 (15.4) 50.3 (10.8) 14.1 (8.5 to 19.8) < 0.001
 Late follicular period 63.0 (14.1) 65.5 (10.3) 68.3 (15.4) 67.3 (12.3) 1.9 (− 4.4 to 8.1) 0.975
Secondary outcomes       
Sub-scales of premenstrual syndrome symptoms       
 Depressive symptoms (0–100) 19.1 (12.5) 18.8 (11.6) 8.7 (10.2) 18.6 (10.5) − 10.2 (− 13.0 to − 7.3) < 0.001
 Physical symptoms (0–100) 15.1 (9.4) 20.2 (12.9) 12.7 (9.0) 18.6 (12.4) − 2.1 (− 4.1 to − 0.1) 0.041
 Anger/irritability (0–100) 26.3 (15.6) 24.2 (15.9) 12.9 (13.1) 23.7 (11.5) − 12.0 (− 16.2 to − 7.9) < 0.001
 Reduced productivity at work/school/or home (1–6) 1.7 (0.7) 1.8 (0.7) 1.3 (0.5) 1.9 (0.7) − 0.6 (− 0.8 to − 0.3) < 0.001
 Interfered with hobbies or social activities (1–6) 1.7 (0.7) 1.8 (0.8) 1.3 (0.5) 2.1 (0.7) − 0.8 (− 1.0 to − 0.6)  < 0.001
 Interfered with relationships with others (1–6) 1.7 (0.8) 1.9 (0.9) 1.3 (0.6) 2.3 (0.7) − 0.9 (− 1.2 to − 0.7) < 0.001
Disability severityd       
 Total (0–30) 11.0 (6.2) 13.1 (4.6) 6.0 (4.7) 13.8 (5.0) − 6.9 (− 8.7 to − 5.2) < 0.001
 In work/school work (0–10) 2.9 (2.7) 4.1 (2.4) 1.6 (1.8) 4.1 (2.5) − 2.2 (− 3.1 to − 1.3) < 0.001
 In social life (0–10) 4.0 (2.6) 4.4 (2.0) 2.1 (1.8) 4.5 (2.0) − 2.4 (− 3.1 to − 1.7) < 0.001
 In family life/home responsibilities (0–10) 4.1 (2.6) 4.7 (1.8) 2.3 (1.9) 5.1 (1.6) − 2.7 (− 3.4 to − 2.0) < 0.001
Menstrual attitudee       
 Menstruation as a debilitating event (12–84) 59.2 (9.2) 58.9 (8.8) 52.5 (9.9) 56.9 (8.7) − 4.7 (− 7.9 to − 1.6) 0.003
 Menstruation as a bothersome event (6–42) 24.8 (6.7) 23.7 (6.1) 21.8 (6.8) 23.5 (6.6) − 2.2 (− 4.1 to − 0.3) 0.022
 Menstruation as a natural event (4–28) 25.0 (5.2) 25.7 (4.5) 27.4 (4.8) 25.4 (4.7) 2.0 (0.8 to 3.2) 0.002
 Anticipation and prediction of the onset of menstruation (4–28) 26.9 (3.7) 27.4 (3.6) 25.2 (5.1) 27.0 (3.5) − 1.5 (− 3.1 to 0.0) 0.059
 Denial of any effect of menstruation (7–49) 19.8 (5.3) 19.0 (4.6) 22.3 (6.1) 18.5 (5.7) 3.3 (1.1 to 5.5) 0.004
  1. Intervention group received web-based counselling with a cognitive-behavioural approach for eight weeks and control group received no intervention
  2. Values indicate number (percent) or mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated
  3. aUnivariate General Linear Models were used to compare post-intervention scores of the groups adjusted for the baseline values using Sidak. Also, Bonferroni correction was used for the multiple comparisons of the primary outcomes
  4. bAssessed using Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP); the higher score, the sever symptom
  5. cAssessed using Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (QLES-Q-SF) twice during the period, on day of 1–2 and 11–13 of menstrual cycle; the higher score, the better quality
  6. dAssessed using Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) at day of 1–2 of menstruation period; the higher score, the sever disability
  7. eAssessed using Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ) at day of 1–2 of menstruation period