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Table 1 The characteristics of study population by survey year (CHNS 2004–2011)

From: Trends of central obesity and associations with nutrients intake and daily behaviors among women of childbearing age in China

Survey year 2004 2006 2009 2011 F/χ² P
Social demographics
Age (years)
Mean ± SD 32.8 ± 7.3 34.3 ± 7.6 34.6 ± 7.4 35.6 ± 7.0 145.46 < 0.001
 15–34 880 (50.7%) 846 (43.8%) 677 (40.2%) 469 (36.1%) 73.41 < 0.001
 35–44 855 (49.3%) 1087 (56.2%) 1008 (59.8%) 831 (63.9%)   
Residence location
 Urban 587 (33.8%) 659 (34.1%) 558 (33.1%) 433 (33.3%) 0.48 0.924
 Rural 1148 (66.2%) 1274 (65.9%) 1127 (66.9%) 867 (66.7%)   
Education level
 Non/primary school 508 (29.5%) 505 (26.4%) 465 (28.2%) 346 (26.9%) 81.10 < 0.001
 Junior school 778 (45.2%) 856 (44.7%) 718 (43.5%) 552 (42.9%)   
 Senior school 364 (21.2%) 430 (22.5%) 335 (20.3%) 233 (18.1%)   
 College and above 70 (4.1%) 122 (6.4%) 131 (7.9%) 156 (12.1%)   
Income
 Low 898 (52.5%) 929 (48.9%) 497 (30.1%) 321 (25.3%) 493.08 < 0.001
 Medium 589 (34.4%) 663 (34.9%) 664 (40.2%) 463 (36.4%)   
 High 224 (13.1%) 306 (16.1%) 489 (29.6%) 487 (38.3%)   
Currently smoking
 Yes 27 (1.6%) 20 (1.0%) 16 (0.9%) 11 (0.8%) 4.48 0.216
 No 1708 (98.4%) 1913 (99.0%) 1669 (99.1%) 1289 (99.2%)   
Alcohol drinking
 Yes 142 (8.4%) 154 (8.1%) 154 (9.4%) 132 (10.3%) 5.38 0.146
 No 1542 (91.6%) 1739 (91.9%) 1481 (90.6%) 1150 (89.7%)   
Nutrients intake
Carbohydrate (g) 305.0 ± 100.3 291.8 ± 106.1 271.9 ± 91.3 254.5 ± 95.9 235.46 < 0.001
Carbohydrate (%E)
 = AMDR 789 (46.2%) 867 (46.3%) 812 (49.9%) 595 (47.0%) 164.97 < 0.001
 < AMDR 343 (20.1%) 467 (24.9%) 474 (29.1%) 445 (35.2%)   
 > AMDR 577 (33.8%) 538 (28.7%) 341 (21%) 225 (17.8%)   
Fat (g) 65.0 ± 35.8 66.5 ± 35.2 70.0 ± 45.4 68.0 ± 37.5 5.02 0.002
Fat (%E)
 = AMDR 590 (34.5%) 562 (30.0%) 503 (30.9%) 367 (29.0%) 107.33 < 0.001
 < AMDR 417 (24.4%) 413 (22.1%) 253 (15.6%) 185 (14.6%)   
 > AMDR 702 (41.1%) 897 (47.9%) 871 (53.5%) 713 (56.4%)   
Protein (g) 63.8 ± 25.1 61.8 ± 20.7 62.3 ± 20.3 61.5 ± 21.3 7.39 0.061
Protein (%E)
 = AMDR 1155 (67.6%) 1289 (68.9%) 1084 (66.6%) 811 (64.1%) 102.78 < 0.001
 < AMDR 307 (18.0%) 311 (16.6%) 213 (13.1%) 134 (10.6%)   
 > AMDR 247 (14.5%) 272 (14.5%) 330 (20.3%) 320 (25.3%)   
Daily behaviors
LTPA
 Yes 172 (9.9%) 188 (9.7%) 199 (11.8%) 128 (9.8%) 5.40 0.145
 No 1563 (90.1%) 1745 (90.3%) 1486 (88.2%) 1172 (90.2%)   
Sedentary time (h/day)
Mean ± SD 2.8 ± 2.0 2.8 ± 1.9 3.1 ± 2.3 3.3 ± 2.2 69.96 < 0.001
 < 2 h 635 (36.9%) 636 (33.2%) 454 (27.6%) 316 (24.6%) 66.01 < 0.001
 ≥ 2 h 1087 (63.1%) 1282 (66.8%) 1193 (72.4%) 971 (75.4%)   
Sleep duration (h/day)
Mean ± SD 8.3 ± 1.1 8.2 ± 1.0 8.1 ± 1.0 8.0 ± 1.0 57.39 < 0.001
 ≥ 8 h 1397 (83.0%) 1517 (80.9%) 1277 (78.6%) 977 (75.2%) 23.94 < 0.001
 < 8 h 286 (17.0%) 357 (19.1%) 347 (21.4%) 305 (23.5%)   
Central obesity indices
WC (cm)
Mean ± SD 75.9 ± 8.8 76.3 ± 8.8 77.2 ± 9.4 78.4 ± 9.6 60.11 < 0.001
 Normal 1360 (78.4%) 1502 (77.7%) 1264 (75.0%) 901 (69.3%) 40.10 < 0.001
 High 375 (21.6%) 431 (22.3%) 421 (25.0%) 399 (30.7%)   
WHtR
Mean ± SD 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 46.28 < 0.001
 Normal 1339 (77.2%) 1492 (77.2%) 1247 (74.0%) 876 (67.4%) 48.69 < 0.001
 High 396 (22.8%) 441 (22.8%) 438 (26.0%) 424 (32.6%)   
  1. Data given as mean ± SD (standard deviation) or number (percent)
  2. %E the percentage of energy intake from carbohydrate, fat, protein respectively, AMDR acceptable macronutrient distribution range, LTPA leisure time physical activity, WC waist circumference, WHtR waist to height ratio