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Table 4 Association between reports of physical violence inflicted by a partner in the last 12 months and internal migration flows. Peru ENDES 2015–2017 (n = 63,859)

From: Rural–urban migration as a factor associated with physical and sexual intimate partner violence Peru 2015–2017: a secondary analysis of a national study

Report of violence in the last 12 months Crude model* Adjusted model** P
PRc 95% CI PRa 95% CI  
Internal migration flows
Nonmigrant 1    1   
Recent migrant 1.19 1.08–1.31 0.001 1.05 0.96–1.17 0.269
Urban-urban 0.95 0.82–1.09 0.493 0.99 0.87–1.15 0.976
Urban–rural 1.34 1.07–1.66 0.008 1.18 0.95–1.45 0.138
Rural–urban 1.21 1.08–1.35 0.001 1.15 1.03–1.29 0.015
Rural-rural 1.04 0.93–1.17 0.414 0.94 0.84–1.06 0.332
Age
30–49 years 1    1   
15–29 years 1.38 1.28–1.48  < 0.001 1.47 1.35–1.60  < 0.001
Education
None/early education 1    1   
Primary 1.21 0.99–1.49 0.069 1.14 0.93–1.40 0.215
Secondary 1.27 1.04–1.55 0.019 1.15 0.93–1.42 0.201
Higher education (nonuniversity) 0.95 0.84–1.16 0.533 0.95 0.75–1.19 0.646
Higher education (university and postgraduate) 0.75 0.59–0.95 0.017 0.85 0.66–1.09 0.204
History of physical aggression by father toward mother
No 1    1   
Yes 1.78 1.64–1.93  < 0.001 1.69 1.57–1.84  < 0.001
Does not know/Did not answer 1.41 1.11–1.81 0.005 1.33 1.03–1.70 0.027
Native language
Spanish 1    1   
Quechua 1.16 1.03–1.30 0.011 1.14 1.01–1.28 0.038
Aymara 1.39 0.94–2.04 0.096 1.39 0.95–2.03 0.091
Other indigenous language/foreign language 1.02 0.65–1.59 0.947 0.97 0.61–1.54 0.899
Paid occupation
No 1    1   
Yes 1.19 1.09–1.30  < 0.001 1.25 1.14–1.36  < 0.001
Number of children
None 1    1   
One 1.32 1.05–1.66 0.018 1.27 1.01–1.61 0.042
Two 1.18 0.95–1.49 0.129 1.29 1.03–1.62 0.029
Three or more 1.40 1.12–1.76 0.003 1.59 1.25–2.01  < 0.001
Marital/conjugal status
Married 1    1   
Cohabitating 1.63 1.47–1.79  < 0.001 1.40 1.27–1.56  < 0.001
Separated/Divorced/Widowed 1.73 1.52–1.97  < 0.001 1.49 1.28–1.75  < 0.001
Another sexual partner in the last 12 months in addition to a stable partner 1    1   
Yes 1.25 1.09–1.44 0.002 1.05 0.88–1.27 0.576
Alcohol consumption by the partner in the last 12 months
No 1    1   
Yes 1.73 1.53–1.96  < 0.001 1.58 1.40–1.78  < 0.001
Interviewee's duration of living in the place to which she migrated
Nonmigrant 1      
Less than 5 years 1.19 1.07–1.31 0.001    
5 years or more 1.11 1.02–1.22 0.021    
Socioeconomic status
Lower quintile 1      
Second quintile 1.21 1.10–1.33  < 0.001    
Third quintile 1.14 1.02–1.27 0.019    
Fourth quintile 0.91 0.80–1.03 0.336    
Upper quintile 0.52 0.44–0.61  < 0.001    
  1. PR: Prevalence ratio (c = crude, a = adjusted), 95 CI%: 95% confidence interval
  2. *Crude generalized linear model of the logarithmic Poisson link log family. The results are presented asf prevalence ratios (PRc)
  3. **Adjusted generalized linear model of the logarithmic Poisson link log family. The results are presented as prevalence ratios (PRa). For the entire analysis, complex sampling (svy) was considered, in addition to the model variables age, education level, occupation, number of children, history of physical aggression of the father toward the mother, marital status and frequency of alcohol consumption by the partner. Complex sampling (svy) is considered for the entire analysis