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Table 11 Multivariate analysis of physical violence among pregnant women in Kenya (2014), adjusted and weighted

From: Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Kenya: forms, perpetrators and associations

Variable aOR 95% CI p-value
Age (continuous) 1.01 1.01–1.02 < 0.001**
Age in 5-year-group
15–19\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
20–24 2.09 1.36–3.34 0.001**
25–29 2.21 1.45–3.48 < 0.001**
30–34 2.36 1.53–3.74 < 0.001**
35–39 2.19 1.42–3.49 < 0.001**
40–44 2.50 1.60–4.02 < 0.001**
45–49 2.74 1.74–4.44 < 0.001**
Age at first cohabitation
\(\le\) 14\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
15–17 1.27 1.10–1.45 < 0.001**
18+ 0.73 0.64–0.83 < 0.001**
Age at sexual debut
\(\le\) 14\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
15–17 1.35 1.18–1.54 < 0.001**
18+ 0.56 0.49–0.64 < 0.001**
Religion
Roman Catholic\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Protestant, other Christian 0.99 0.84–1.16 0.861
Muslim 0.36 0.28–0.47 < 0.001**
No religion 0.69 0.45–1.05 0.089
Other religion 0.77 0.26–2.11 0.625
Residence
Urban\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Rural 1.13 0.99–1.30 0.071
Region
Central\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Eastern 0.66 0.57–0.76 < 0.001**
Western 1.41 1.24–1.60 < 0.001**
Nairobi 2.78 1.81–4.27 < 0.001**
Marital status
Married or living together\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Divorced, separated, widowed 1.97 1.65–2.34 < 0.001**
Number of living children
\(0^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
1–2 0.86 0.74–1.00 0.043*
3–4 1.28 1.12–1.45 < 0.001**
5 1.05 0.89–1.24 0.534
Employment (yes) 1.85 1.60–2.14 < 0.001**
Education
No education\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Primary 1.24 1.03–1.50 0.022*
Secondary or higher 0.59 0.51–0.68 < 0.001**
Wealth quintile
Poorer or Poorest\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Middle 1.13 0.92–1.38 0.239
Richer or Richest 0.66 0.56–0.78 < 0.001**
Woman afraid of partner
Never\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Sometimes 3.82 3.28–4.45 < 0.001**
Most of the time 10.30 8.38–12.71 < 0.001**
Woman’s father beat mother 2.03 1.78–2.32 < 0.001**
Partner’s age
15–24\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
25–34 1.21 1.02–1.45 0.032*
35+ 0.87 0.72–1.05 0.157
Partner’s education
No education\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Primary 1.39 1.12–1.72 0.003**
Secondary or higher 0.76 0.66–0.89 < 0.001**
Partner working
Did not work\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Professional, technical, managerial or clerical or services 0.71 0.60–0.84 < 0.001**
Manual or agricultural or household and domestic 1.40 1.20–1.64 < 0.001**
Partner’s alcohol consumption
Never\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Often 2.69 2.16–3.37 < 0.001**
Sometimes 0.39 0.31–0.49 < 0.001**
  1. Model is adjusted for woman’s age, education, ethnicity, employment and place of residence (urban, rural). Age variable is presented in years
  2. aOR, adjusted Odds Ratio. 95% CI, 95% Confidence Interval. \(^{\mathrm{r}}\)Reference group. *p-value \(<0.05\). **p-value \(<0.005\)