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Table 7 Distribution of selected variables according to physical violence among women in Kenya (2014), weighted

From: Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Kenya: forms, perpetrators and associations

Variable Physical violence (n = 1431) No physical violence (n = 2586) No violence in any form (n = 2008) p-value Chi-square or t-value
Age (mean) 32.6 (8.0) 31.2 (7.9) 31.3 (7.8) < 0.001 − 5.530
Age in 5-year-group
15–19 1.3 3.6 2.8 < 0.001 31.106
20–24 14.5 17.0 17.1   
25–29 24.4 25.1 24.3   
30–34 19.2 18.8 19.1   
35–39 17.1 15.0 15.6   
40–44 12.7 12.3 12.6   
45–49 10.8 8.3 8.5   
Age at first cohabitation
\(\le\) 14 10.2 7.4 7.7 < 0.001 7.579
15–17 29.8 24.8 24.5   
18+ 60.0 67.8 67.8   
Age at sexual debut
\(\le\) 14 18.2 10.0 10.4 < 0.001 8.213
15–17 36.3 30.3 29.2   
18+ 45.4 59.7 60.4   
Religion
Roman Catholic 20.8 18.8 19.4 < 0.001 45.002
Protestant, other Christian 73.2 69.6 68.1   
Muslim 3.3 8.7 9.6   
No religion 2.5 2.5 2.6   
Other religion 0.2 0.5 0.3   
Residence
Urban 41.8 39.1 39.7 < 0.001 17.224
Rural 58.2 60.9 60.3   
Region
Central 10.8 14.0 14.3 < 0.001 127.970
Eastern 24.2 29.9 31.5   
Western 53.0 46.7 46.2   
Nairobi 12.0 9.3 8.0   
Marital status
Married or living together 75.3 87.7 89.2 < 0.001 126.660
Divorced, separated, widowed 24.7 12.3 10.8   
Number of living children
0 2.0 6.7 3.2 < 0.001 4.605
1–2 35.4 44.5 46.2   
3–4 36.3 27.7 29.0   
5+ 26.3 21.2 21.5   
Employment (yes) 80.1 68.1 66.8 < 0.001 65.947
Education
No education 8.2 9.9 10.9 < 0.001 79.035
Primary 64.4 52.0 52.0   
Secondary or Higher 27.3 38.1 37.1   
Wealth quintile
Poorer or Poorest 41.4 34.5 35.3 < 0.001 60.375
Middle 21.0 17.8 17.8   
Richer or Richest 37.6 47.7 46.9   
Woman afraid of partner
Never 38.9 77.8 80.3 < 0.001 692.870
Sometimes 34.2 17.8 15.5   
Most of the time 26.6 4.4 4.2   
Timing of first violence after marriage
0 year 13.3 1.9 0.0 < 0.001 3.545
1–2 years 33.4 1.4 0.0   
3–4 years 21.0 0.7 0.0   
5–10 years 23.7 1.5 0.0   
11+ years 8.2 0.3 0.0   
Woman’s father beat mother 46.9 32.3 30.5 < 0.001 91.986
Partner’s age
15–24 1.5 3.6 2.8 < 0.001 − 3.709
25–34 26.2 32.5 32.9   
35+ 46.8 51.2 53.1   
Partner’s education
No education 7.0 7.6 8.3 < 0.001 68.742
Primary 53.1 43.3 43.4   
Secondary or Higher 39.1 47.9 46.9   
Partner working
Did not work 1.5 1.6 1.6 < 0.001 62.188
Professional, technical, managerial or clerical or services 19.7 27.3 27.1   
Manual or agricultural or household and domestic 78.2 69.9 70.2   
Partner’s alcohol consumption
Never 0.4 0.3 0.3 < 0.001 101.73
Often 26.2 6.8 5.7   
Sometimes 26.0 20.9 20.4   
Total 15–49 years 1431 2586 2008   
  1. All variables are expressed as proportions (in %) except for age (mean and standard deviation). Age variables are presented in years
  2. Chi-square or t-value and p-value concern the physical violence
  3. Bold indicates p-value < 0.05 is statistically significant