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Table 4 Odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios in favor of tobacco use for age at marriage and other covariates

From: Child marriage and risky health behaviors: an analysis of tobacco use among early adult and early middle-aged women in India

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Early adulthood Early middle age All Early adulthood Early middle age All
Age at marriage       
 18 to 21 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 13 or less 2.155*** 1.534*** 1.944*** 1.414*** 1.293*** 1.359***
(1.987, 2.336) (1.417, 1.662) (1.833, 2.062) (1.292, 1.547) (1.185, 1.411) (1.273, 1.451)
 14 to 15 1.986*** 1.424*** 1.775*** 1.332*** 1.168*** 1.252***
(1.859, 2.122) (1.335, 1.519) (1.696, 1.857) (1.237, 1.434) (1.087, 1.256) (1.191, 1.317)
 16 to 17 1.511*** 1.298*** 1.446*** 1.170*** 1.113*** 1.146***
(1.429, 1.597) (1.223, 1.378) (1.388, 1.506) (1.103, 1.242) (1.044, 1.187) (1.097, 1.197)
Age     1.069*** 1.045*** 1.059***
    (1.061, 1.077) (1.036, 1.055) (1.055, 1.062)
Education       
 No education     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Primary     0.801*** 0.778*** 0.796***
    (0.740, 0.867) (0.721, 0.840) (0.751, 0.844)
 Secondary     0.456*** 0.469*** 0.456***
    (0.417, 0.499) (0.429, 0.513) (0.427, 0.487)
 Higher     0.140*** 0.210*** 0.160***
    (0.099, 0.198) (0.135, 0.326) (0.122, 0.209)
Household size       
 3 or less     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 4 to 5     0.916* 0.998 0.973
    (0.833, 1.008) (0.916, 1.087) (0.915, 1.036)
 6 to 8     0.866*** 1.037 0.961
    (0.785, 0.955) (0.948, 1.133) (0.900, 1.025)
 9 or more     0.901 1.105 0.993
    (0.796, 1.021) (0.973, 1.254) (0.907, 1.088)
Wealth index quintiles       
 1st (Poorest)     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 2nd (Poorer)     0.683*** 0.796*** 0.732***
    (0.639, 0.730) (0.745, 0.851) (0.698, 0.769)
 3rd (Middle)     0.516*** 0.578*** 0.541***
    (0.473, 0.563) (0.534, 0.626) (0.509, 0.575)
 4th (Richer)     0.334*** 0.443*** 0.385***
    (0.295, 0.378) (0.396, 0.495) (0.352, 0.420)
 5th (Richest)     0.168*** 0.241*** 0.205***
    (0.132, 0.213) (0.203, 0.285) (0.179, 0.235)
Religion
 Hindu     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Muslim     1.244*** 1.328*** 1.287***
    (1.109, 1.396) (1.196, 1.476) (1.184, 1.399)
 Christian     0.706** 0.655*** 0.679***
    (0.536, 0.930) (0.530, 0.810) (0.564, 0.817)
 Sikh     0.054*** 0.276*** 0.181***
    (0.012, 0.238) (0.131, 0.580) (0.094, 0.349)
 Buddhist     0.691* 0.808 0.756**
    (0.466, 1.026) (0.555, 1.178) (0.573, 0.998)
 Other     1.025 1.284* 1.117
    (0.772, 1.359) (0.958, 1.723) (0.895, 1.393)
Caste       
 Not backward class     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Scheduled caste     1.320*** 1.377*** 1.347***
    (1.171, 1.488) (1.235, 1.535) (1.236, 1.469)
 Scheduled tribe     1.800*** 1.746*** 1.781***
    (1.580, 2.051) (1.547, 1.969) (1.616, 1.963)
 Other backward class     0.990 1.065 1.030
    (0.888, 1.102) (0.970, 1.170) (0.955, 1.111)
Residence
 Rural     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Urban     1.461*** 1.300*** 1.381***
    (1.309, 1.631) (1.174, 1.440) (1.270, 1.503)
 Observations 190,551 119,402 309,953 190,069 119,281 309,681
  1. 95% confidence intervals are in parenthesis
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1
  3. Estimates are obtained using complex survey weights
  4. All models control for state fixed effects. There were no tobacco-user early-adult women in the Chandigarh and Daman & Diu territories. There were no tobacco-user early-middle-aged women in the Chandigarh territory. Observations from these areas were omitted in the respective multivariate specifications