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Table 5 Odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios in favor of tobacco use for child marriage by urban and rural household wealth and education sub-groups

From: Child marriage and risky health behaviors: an analysis of tobacco use among early adult and early middle-aged women in India

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Early adulthood Early middle age All Early adulthood Early middle age All
Panel A. Urban-poor       
Child marriage 1.530*** 1.383*** 1.527*** 1.191** 1.246** 1.231***
(1.325, 1.766) (1.170, 1.636) (1.381, 1.689) (1.018, 1.392) (1.030, 1.507) (1.104, 1.373)
Observations 23,403 13,953 37,356 23,258 13,923 37,306
Panel B. Urban-nonpoor       
Child marriage 2.509*** 1.667*** 2.141*** 1.865*** 1.116 1.335***
(1.950, 3.229) (1.294, 2.147) (1.764, 2.599) (1.425, 2.441) (0.859, 1.449) (1.078, 1.654)
Observations 23,639 18,877 42,516 21,671 17,675 42,043
Panel C. Rural-poor       
Child marriage 1.265*** 1.071* 1.197*** 1.215*** 1.120*** 1.167***
(1.187, 1.347) (1.000, 1.148) (1.142, 1.255) (1.136, 1.300) (1.040, 1.207) (1.110, 1.227)
Observations 59,587 33,808 93,395 59,542 33,806 93,395
Panel D. Rural-nonpoor       
Child marriage 1.744*** 1.365*** 1.669*** 1.338*** 1.163*** 1.253***
(1.608, 1.892) (1.260, 1.479) (1.575, 1.768) (1.224, 1.464) (1.065, 1.270) (1.175, 1.335)
Observations 83,922 52,764 136,686 80,667 52,624 136,433
Panel E. Low education       
Child marriage 1.252*** 1.095*** 1.182*** 1.242*** 1.117*** 1.173***
(1.182, 1.326) (1.035, 1.160) (1.134, 1.232) (1.168, 1.321) (1.050, 1.189) (1.123, 1.226)
Observations 89,173 77,383 166,556 89,021 77,334 166,447
Panel F. High education       
Child marriage 1.626*** 1.373*** 1.559*** 1.396*** 1.213*** 1.326***
(1.488, 1.776) (1.220, 1.544) (1.452, 1.674) (1.265, 1.540) (1.064, 1.382) (1.225, 1.436)
Observations 101,378 42,019 143,397 98,408 39,156 138,624
  1. 95% confidence intervals are in parenthesis
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1
  3. Estimates are obtained using complex survey weights
  4. Each panel (A, B, C, D, E, and F) presents results of separate regressions
  5. Poor refers to households in the bottom-two (1st and 2nd) wealth index quintiles of respective regions (urban or rural). Non-poor refers to households in the top-three (3rd, 4th, and 5th) wealth index quintiles of respective regions (urban or rural)
  6. Low education refers to no education or primary education. High education refers to secondary or higher education
  7. In multivariable specification (adjusted) the following covariates (not reported here) were controlled for: age, education, household size, religion, caste, and state fixed effect