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Table 2 Bivariate associations of IPV and socio-demographic characteristics

From: Trends and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in Rwanda: results from the 2015 and 2020 Rwanda Demographic Health Survey (RDHS 2015 and 2020)

   DH2015 DH2020
Ever experienced IPV
  Women Men Women Men
  No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
Respondent's age P value 0.002 0.054 0.035   0.363
15–19   0.9 1.7 0.1 0.0 1.7 0.6 0 0
20–29   39.0 30.9 22.9 18.1 29.3 26 16.4 11.8
30–39   40.0 44.1 39.9 43.7 45.0 48.2 43.0 45.7
40–49   20.0 23.3 23.1 19.1 24.4 25.3 26.0 27.3
50 and above   0.0 0 14.0 19.1 0 0 14.6 15.1
Total % (N)   100 (1139) 100 (764) 100 (1094) 100 (293) 100 (1052) 100 (895) 100 (1129) 100 (245)
Partner's age P value   0.40   0.523   0.302   0.419
15–19   0.1 0.2 1.2 0.4 0.2 0 0.8 0.9
20–29   27.9 21.2 35.9 32.3 18.9 15.6 28.2 26.9
30–39   41.4 43.4 41.4 44.9 45.5 47.2 47.0 44.7
40–49   20.6 23.2 16.0 15.7 23.6 25.5 18.0 17.8
50 and above   10 12.1 5.5 6.7 11.8 11.7 6.0 9.6
Total % (N)   100 (1020) 100 (604) 100 (1080) 100 (254) 100 (967) 100 (699) 100 (1101) 100 (219)
Respondent's education P value   0.000   0.008   0.000   0.058
No education   15.8 18.2 16.8 24.6 11 16.4 12.8 16.3
Primary   69.5 74.5 71.3 67.6 62.5 69.2 69.3 71.8
Secondary   11.5 6.8 7.9 5.8 20 13.1 12.9 9.8
Higher   3.2 0.5 4.0 2.0 6.5 1.3 5.0 2.0
Total % (N)   100 (1139) 100 (764) 100 (1094) 100 (293) 100 (1052) 100 (895) 100 (1129) 100 (245)
Residence of respondent P value   0.264   0.425   0.005   0.658
Urban   22.8 17.5 22.3 20.1 19.9 17.9 20.0 18.8
Rural   77.2 82.5 77.7 79.9 80.1 82.1 80.0 81.2
Total % (N)   100 (1139) 100 (764) 100 (1094) 100 (293) 100 (1052) 100 (895) 100 (1129) 100 (245)
Partner's education P value   0.000     0.000   
No Education   14.4 22.5    10.4 17.1   
Primary   70 69    68 72.5   
Secondary   11.4 7.2    14.3 8.7   
Higher   4.3 1.2    7.3 1.7   
Total % (N)   100 (1135) 100 (759)    100 (962) 100 (691)   
Respondent's literacy P value   0.000   0.001   0.018   0.053
Cannot read at all   22.9 28.3 20.9 30.8 17 25 18.5 25.3
Able to read only parts of sentence   8.7 9.4 9.0 6.2 10.7 10.2 10.0 9.8
Able to read whole sentence   68.3 62.3 70.2 63.0 72.2 64.8 71.4 64.9
Total % (N)   100 (1134) 100 (763) 100 (1093) 100 (292) 100 (1052) 100 (893) 100 (1127) 100 (245)
Respondent's Wealth index P value   0.000   0.001   0.000   0.111
Poorest   17 28.9 17.367 26.6 19.4 28.3 19.5 24.5
Poorer   21 20.8 21.389 21.5 19.2 22.8 20.1 20.4
Middle   20.5 19 20.750 22.9 18.5 18.2 23.0 26.1
Richer   18.6 17.9 21.115 16.0 22.2 17.7 20.3 14.7
Richest   22.9 13.4 19.378 13.0 20.6 13.1 17.1 14.3
Total % (N)   100 (1139) 100 (764) 100 (1094) 100 (293) 100 (1052) 100 (895) 100 (1129) 100 (245)
Partner’s drink alcohol P value   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000
No   14.2 10.7 67.1 44.7 23.2 20.6 71.8 49.0
Yes   85.8 89.3 32.9 55.3 76.8 79.4 28.2 51.0
Total % (N)   100 (1139) 100 (764) 100 (1094) 100 (293) 100 (1052) 100 (895) 100 (1126) 100 (245)
Respondent currently working P value   0.162   0.657   0.026   0.916
No   43.6 21.5 0.5 0.3 50.6 20.7 1 1
Yes   56.4 78.5 99.5 99.7 49.4 79.3 99 99
Total % (N)   100 (1139) 100 (764) 100 (1094) 100 (293) 100 (1052) 100 (895) 100 (1129) 100 (245)
Respondent's province P value   0.565   0.392   0.519   0.223
Kigali city   11.6 10.9 12.1 9.9 11 10.7 11.5 9.0
South   24.4 23.7 24.4 27.6 23.9 25.3 23.5 27.3
West   23.4 22.5 23.4 24.2 22.4 24.6 22.9 24.5
North   15.4 18.3 18.0 14.3 16.3 16.2 17.9 13.1
East   25.3 24.6 22.1 23.9 26.3 23.2 24.2 26.1
Total % (N)   100 (1139) 100 (764) 100 (1094) 100 (293) 100 (1052) 100 (895) 100 (1129) 100 (245)
Respondent involved with decisions about her earnings P value   0.000   0.025   0.000   0.000
Respondent alone   12.4 24.8 18.5 25.6 17.5 29.1 13.0 22.5
Respondent and partner   76.9 57.5 79.6 71.2 75.1 58.3 84.6 70.5
partner alone   10.6 17.7 2.0 3.3 7.5 12.6 2.3 7.0
Total % (N)   100 (620) 100 (395) 100 (920) 100 (215) 100.1 (550) 100 (398) 100 (937) 100 (200)
Respondent involved with decisions about her health P value   0.000   0.061   0.000   0.036
Respondent alone   16.9 27.2 42.4 51.6 21.9 36.4 46.0 52.5
Respondent and partner   67.4 54.5 53.8 45.7 61.3 42.6 51.0 42.5
Partner alone   15.7 18.4 3.7 2.8 16.8 20.9 3.0 5.0
Total % (N)   100 (1021) 100 (604) 100 (1079) 100 (254) 100 (966) 100 (697) 100 (1101) 100 (219)
Respondent involved in decisions about household purchase P value   0.000   0.00   0.000   0.00
Respondent alone   7.4 14.8 27.1 37 4.8 10.9 23.5 39.3
Respondent and partner   69.3 50.6 69.7 56.7 76.9 59.1 70.1 53.4
Partner alone   23.2 34.7 3.2 6.3 18.3 30 6.4 6.8
Total % (N)   100 (1021) 100 (603) 100 (1079) 100 (254) 100 (966) 100 (697) 100 (1101) 100 (219)
Respondent involved with decisions about her visits of friends or relatives P value   0.000     0.000   
Respondent alone   12.1 22.6    16.3 22.5   
Respondent and husband/partner   75.9 60.5    74.2 59.1   
Husband/partner alone   11.9 16.9    9.5 18.5   
Total % (N)   100 (101) 100 (603)    100 (963) 100 (699)   
Household members P value   0.129   0.169   0.000   0.161
1–3   30.5 25.1 25.6 28.0 28.6 26.8 24.4 30.2
4–5   39.3 42.7 41.7 45.1 42.4 46.9 46.1 42.0
6 and above   30.2 32.2 32.7 27.0 29 26.3 29.6 27.8
Total % (N)   100 (1139) 100 (764) 100 (1094) 100 (293) 100 (1052) 100 (895) 100 (1129) 100 (245)
Frequency of being hit in last 12 months by other than partner      0.005     0.597
Not at all     90.4 81.2    90.8 87.8
Often     0.1 2.0    0.4 1.1
Sometimes     9.3 16.8    8.8 11.1
Total % (N)     100 (386) 100 (149)    100 (251) 100 (90)
Number of wives or partners P value     0.002     0.15
One wife     97.315 93.3    96.9 95.0
More than one wife     2.685 6.7    3.1 5.0
Total % (N)     100 (1080) 100 (254)    100 (1101) 100 (219)
Owns a house alone or jointly      0.079     0.11
Does not own P value    16.2 21.8    18.6 24.5
Alone only     34.6 33.8    28.0 28.6
Jointly only     48.6 44.4    48.7 44.1
Both alone and jointly     0.5 0.0    4.7 2.9
Total % (N)     100 (1094) 100 (293)    100 (1129) 100 (245)
Owns land alone or jointly      0.031     0.022
Does not own P value    22.7 29.7    34.4 43.3
Alone only     28.6 28.7    25.4 25.7
Jointly only     48.3 40.6    36.1 29.0
Both alone and jointly     0.5 1.0    4.1 2.0
Total % (N)     100 (1094) 100 (293)    100 (1129) 100 (245)
Frequency of wife/partner being drunk     0.000     0.000
Never     81.9 41.9    61.8 26.4
Often P value    1.1 10.0    0.3 9.6
Sometimes     17 48.1    37.9 64
Total % (N)     100 (359) 100 (160)    100 (317) 100 (125)