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Table 3 Multivariate analysis of association between IPV and socio-demographic characteristics

From: Trends and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in Rwanda: results from the 2015 and 2020 Rwanda Demographic Health Survey (RDHS 2015 and 2020)

  2015 2020
AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Women Men Women Men
Respondent’s age     
15–19 1.26 (0.27–5.84) 0.33 (0.08–1.38) 0.33 (0.06–1.83) NA
20–29 0.60 (0.323–1.11) 1.46 (0.51–4.17) 1.05 (0.65–1.66) NA
30–39 0.669 (0.40–1.11) 0.66 (0.21–2.12) 1.09 (0.75–1.59) NA
40–49 Ref 0.71 (0.65–0.78) Ref NA
50–59 NA Ref NA  
Partner's age     
20–29 2.381 (1.168–4.856)* NA NA NA
30–39 2.797 (1.517–5.158)* NA NA NA
40–49 1.770 (1.014–3.089)* NA NA NA
50 and above Ref    
Respondent's education     
No education 2.38 (0.429–13.850) 0.37 (0.01–10.72) 1.16 (0.39–3.47) 2.57 (0.12–54.41)
Primary 2.91 (0.559–15.109 0.15 (0.01–3.28) 0.94 (0.36–2.41) 3.3 (0.24–45.66)
Secondary 3.11 (0.608–15.894) 0.05 (0.01–2.00) 0.97 (0.39–2.41) 5.12 (0.33–78.66)
Higher Ref Ref Ref Ref
Partner’s education     
No education 5.57 (1.29–24.02)* NA 3.032 (1.117–8.24)* NA
Primary 3.21 (0.77–13.24) NA 2.459 (0.987–6.124) NA
Secondary 2.56 (0.624–10.49) NA 1.124 (0.444–2.843) NA
Higher Ref Ref Ref  
Respondent's place of residence     
Urban 1    
Rural 0.84 (0.55–1.29) NA NA NA
Respondent's literacy     
Cannot read at all 1.00 (0.62–1.62) 1.28 (0.39–4.19) 1.02 (0.61–1.71) 1.19 (0.23–5.87)
Able to read only parts of sentence 0.98 (0.59–1.62) 0.15 (0.01–1.76) 0.86 (0.52–1.43) 0.45 (0.07–2.74)
Able to read whole sentence 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Respondent's wealth index     
Poorest 2.83 (1.637–4.90)* 0.58 (0.11–3.13) 1.51 (0.87–2.63) 0.93 (0.18–4.78)
Poorer 1.89 (1.10–3.25)* 0.22 (0.04–1.19) 1.38 (0.79–2.41) 0.594 (0.11–3.21)
Middle 1.85 (1.08–3.17)* 0.47 (0.09–2.36) 1.07 (0.61–1.87) 1.522 (0.31–7.46)
Richer 1.66 (0.98–2.81) 0.21 (0.04–1.04)* 0.98 (0.57–1.66) 0.613 (0.11–3.49)
Richest Ref Ref Ref Ref
Partner’s drink alcohol     
No Ref   Ref  
Yes 3.02 (2.20–4.14)* NA 1.712 (1.126–2.606)* NA
Woman currently working     
No 0.89 (0.49–1.60) NA 0.864 (0.525–1.422) NA
Yes Ref   Ref  
Respondent involved with decisions about her earnings     
Respondent alone Ref   Ref  
Respondent and husband/partner 0.57 (0.37–0.88)*   0.70 (0.46–1.09) NA
Husband/partner alone 0.90 (0.51–1.57)   1.02 (0.56–1.86) NA
Respondent involved with decisions about her health     
Respondent alone Ref   Ref  
Respondent and husband/partner 0.77 (0.50–1.18) NA 0.443 (0.304–0.644)* NA
Husband/partner alone 0.49 (0.29–0.84)* NA 0.56 (0.34–0.91) NA
Respondent involved with decisions about household purchase     
Respondent alone Ref   Ref  
Respondent and husband/partner 0.47 (0.27–0.82)* NA 0.68 (0.36–1.30) NA
Husband/partner alone 1.07 (0.59–1.93) NA 0.94 (0.48–1.85) NA
Respondent involved with decisions about her visits     
Respondent alone Ref   Ref  
Respondent and husband/partner 1.03 (0.64–1.65) NA 0.405 (0.21–0.748)* NA
Husband/partner alone 0.93 (0.53–1.64) NA 0.66 (0.38–1.12) NA
Number of children < 5 in household     
None Ref    
1 or 2 0.82 (0.57–1.17) NA NA NA
3 or 4 1.04 (0.47–2.24) NA NA NA
Number of household members     
1–3 Ref    
4–5 1.185 (0.81–1.74) NA NA NA
6 and above 1.680 (1.04–2.71)* NA NA NA
Frequency of being hit in last 12 months by other than wife/partner     
Not at all   Ref   Ref
Sometimes NA 5.49 (1.65–18.25)* NA 0.942 (0.236–3.756)
Number of wives or partners     
One   Ref   Ref
More than one wife NA 0.83 (1.17–0.25) NA 1.558 (0.303–8.003)
Frequency of wife/partner being drunk     
Never   Ref   Ref
Often NA 13.30 (1.9–93.12)* NA 10.27 (0.76–13.59)
Sometimes NA 3.84 (1.61–9.17)* NA 3.91 (1.55–9.87)*
  1. AOR: Adjusted Odd Ratios; Ref: reference category; NA: Not Applicable: variables that are not applicable to men or women
  2. *p ≤ 0.05